Scientipic Whiz-Dim

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)

FROM AN ARTICLE ORIGINALLY WRITTEN FOR BRITANNICA BY:

 Kara Rogers

Alternative Title: HFC

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), any of several organic compounds composed of hydrogenfluorine, and carbon. HFCs are produced synthetically and are used primarily as refrigerants. They became widely used for this purpose beginning in the late 1980s, with the introduction of the Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chemicals such as halons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that contribute to the depletion of Earth’s ozone layer. However, while HFCs have an ozone depletion potential of zero, they are potent greenhouse gases, and thus their manufacture and use became increasingly regulated in the 21st century.

In general, HFCs are relatively nonflammable, chemically stable, and nonreactive. Many are colorless, odorless gases, but some—such as HFC-365mfc (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane)—are liquids at room temperature. As refrigerants, HFCs are used in a wide variety of cooling systems, from refrigerators and freezers to automotive air-conditioning units. HFCs are also used as blowing agents in the production of polymer foams; as firefighting agents (having replaced halons); as solvents in cleaning products for plastics and metals and in plasma etching for semiconductor technology; and as propellants in metered-dose inhalers prescribed for the treatment of asthma.

There are different routes to the synthesis of HFCs. For example, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, C2H2For R134a), one of the most widely used HFCs, can be prepared from trichloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene through halogen exchange and hydrofluorination, in which chlorine is replaced by hydrogen and fluorine, or through isomerization followed by hydrogenolysis, in which hydrogen is used to split an isomer into the desired reaction products. Other HFCs may be prepared through the fluorination of olefins (unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond) with hydrogen fluoride.

Once released into the atmosphere, HFCs decompose relatively quickly; for example, the atmospheric lifetime for HFC-134a is about 14 years. (CFCs, by comparison, can remain in the atmosphere for 100 years.) The breakdown of HFCs occurs in the troposphere (the lowest portion of the atmosphere), where they are split by reactions with hydroxyl radicals (∙OH). Within the troposphere, the carbon-fluorine bonds in HFCs are highly effective at trapping solar radiation (specifically, infrared radiation) and redirecting that radiant energy toward Earth’s surface. This so-called positive radiative forcing effect contributes to global warming (about 14% of future warming in a low-carbon world).

In 2007 the average 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of HFCs was estimated to be 3,770 times that of carbon dioxide (the standard reference chemical for GWP calculations); weighted averaging (based on HFC consumption) predicted a 100-year GWP of 2,400 by 2040. Warming potential, however, varies widely for the individual HFCs. The GWPs of HFCs range from 53 to almost 15,000. The most commonly used is HFC 134a with a 100-year GWP of over 100.

HFC-23 (trifluoromethane, CHF3), which is generated as a by-product in the production of the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2), has an atmospheric lifetime of 270 years and a 100-year GWP of 11,700, which surpasses known GWPs for some of the most environmentally harmful CFCs. HCFC-22 has been banned in Europe because of this, and a substitute HFC with GWP of only 3 found. That alternative should be investigated by the United States as a much less harmful mobile refrigerant in a carbon-constrained world.

HFCs have become increasingly abundant in Earth’s atmosphere. For example, between 1978 and 2005, atmospheric concentrations of HFC-23 increased from about 3 to around 18 parts per trillion (ppt). Likewise, concentrations of HFC-134a increased from levels that were undetectable prior to the 1990s to about 35 ppt in 2005. Because they are anthropogenic (human-generated) sources of positive radiative forcing, HFC emissions have been targeted for reduction by the Kyoto Protocol. Every molecule of HFC production can be expected to eventually escape to the atmosphere. Their use as refrigerants is virtually assured in a planet that is heating up.

Kara Rogers, supplemented with information from Greenpeace and IPCC by Paul Suckow

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Pet Loss Hotline

Pet Loss Hotline at (877) GRIEF-10.

That’s 877-474-3310.

There are many forms of grief that are completely normal in the wake of the loss of a beloved pet. For support dealing with the loss of a pet, call the ASPCA Pet Loss Hotline.

How can I tell if the pet is still alive?

Use a small mirror. If it fogs up next to the nose, the pet is still breathing. If not, it has likely died. Your nearby vet can help you if you are not sure. For a short time you may be able to revive it using full-breath, human-mouth to pet-nose resuscitation. However if your pet does not revive after three inflations, your pet has passed on.

Cats: Normally the eyes open at death, with wide, dilated pupils. The eyeballs will be soft to the touch, and she won’t blink after death.

How long before the body starts decomposing?

Rigor mortis (body stiffening) will set in within about 3 hours, so time is of the essence. When you hear flies gathering, it’s about time you do something. For a small body, this may happen within hours of death, so don’t delay. If the body is warm it will decompose faster, so find a way to cool the body such as laying it on cool concrete. At most you may store the wrapped body in a refrigerator for 24 hours. Longer than this will require placing in a large enough freezer, and freezing will stop a vet from examining the body to determine cause of death.

What do I do with the body?

You may have your sanitation/waste people haul the covered body away from a fully closed trash receptacle (cheapest), group cremate or individually cremate your pet’s body, inter it in a pet cemetery as group or single burial (each option is more expensive). Find out from your local vet, humane society or police department (not 911) whether you may bury your pet’s body in your back yard (rear garden) before you attempt this. Some jurisdictions have laws about this. It is not possible to bury the body in land that you do not personally own, such as a public space.

If you choose to bury your pet, call 1-800 Miss Dig (1-800-647-7344) before excavating the hole. Plan to put it in the highest and driest ground in your yard, to assist decomposition. However, stay downhill from any water well, in fact 50 to 100 feet away from any source of water, including drainage ditches. If you hit bedrock at the bottom of your pet’s grave, don’t use that spot because water can leach over the rock and become contaminated. Note that roots run seemingly everywhere underground. Consider carefully the size of a root before you attempt to spade through it. You can bury a pet above or below roots of typical trees, shrubs and ground cover, no problem. Just realize that being anywhere within the root zone of a plant means you will run into a root or three.

If your pet died of natural causes and was not diseased, you can let the body decompose into the earth naturally. For this the top of your pet’s body should be under 1-1/2 feet (1/2 meter) of soil, and some mounding is OK.

If your pet was diseased or euthanized with anesthetic chemicals, you need to enclose the pet’s body in a sturdy plastic bag before burial. A box or simple coffin is optional. A larger pet requires a hole at least three to four feet deep (1 meter or more deep) and large enough to bed the body or its container yet leave at least a couple feet (half meter) of compacted soil above.

Bury the pet with some of its favorite things, as you may wish. I thought a plastic food/water bowl he favored as a kitten would last longer than the bones and puzzle future archeologists, so I buried my cat with that.

You can conduct a funeral for those that knew the pet, if you like. Treat it like the family member that it was. This may be important for closure, especially for grieving children. A memorial service can be just as effective as a burial ceremony.

You may want to permanently memorialize your pet’s grave in a way that is special to you. If you have buried the body, especially if the grave is shallow, placing stone or brick markers on top is a good way to prevent scavengers from disturbing the body. I placed a heavy potted plant on the grave I dug for my pet cat of 17 years early this morning (7/20/2017 – RIP).


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Basic Training on Where Veterans Live (Trulia on Forbes)

NOV 10, 2014 @ 12:39 PM 5,949 2 FREE Issues of Forbes

Where Veterans Live

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The LAW

What’s this? This is the LAW, the complete compendium of laws of the land governing Planet Earth. And beyond… This groundbreaking post starts with the active law governing outer space, then moves to international law governing all of us, then contains each national constitution by link (in whole for my beloved U.S.A.), and finally concludes with an essay about what global governance OUGHT to be about…

The Law

  1. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

    1. The Outer Space Treaty was considered by the Legal Subcommittee in 1966 and agreement was reached in the General Assembly in the same year (resolution 2222 (XXI)). The Treaty was largely based on the Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, which had been adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 1962 (XVIII) in 1963, but added a few new provisions. The Treaty was opened for signature by the three depository Governments (the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America) in January 1967, and it entered into force in October 1967. The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles:
      1. the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
      2. outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
      3. outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means;
      4. States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;
      5. the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;
      6. astronauts shall be regarded as the envoys of mankind;
      7. States shall be responsible for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities;
      8. States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and
      9. States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.
  2. International Law

    1. The UN Charter, in its Preamble, set an objective: “to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained”. Ever since, the development of, and respect for international law has been a key part of the work of the Organization. This work is carried out in many ways – by courts, tribunals, multilateral treaties – and by the Security Council, which can approve peacekeeping missions, impose sanctions, or authorize the use of force when there is a threat to international peace and security, if it deems this necessary. These powers are given to it by the UN Charter, which is considered an international treaty. As such, it is an instrument of international law, and UN Member States are bound by it. The UN Charter codifies the major principles of international relations, from sovereign equality of States to the prohibition of the use of force in international relations.
    2. Settling Disputes Between States
      1. International Court of Justice
      2. The principal judicial organ of the United Nations is the International Court of Justice (ICJ).  This main body of the UN settles legal disputes submitted to it by States in accordance with international law.  It also gives advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it from authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of nine years by the General Assembly and the Security Council.
    3. Courts and Tribunals
      1. In addition to the International Court of Justice, a wide variety of international courts, international tribunalsad hoc tribunals and UN-assisted tribunals have varying degrees of relation to the United Nations (such as the tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon). The Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (the MICT) was established by the United Nations Security Council on 22 December 2010 to carry out a number of essential functions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), after the completion of their respective mandates. These are established by (and are Subsidiary Organs of) the Security Council.
      2. International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), were established by conventions drafted within the UN, but are now independent entities with special cooperation agreements.
    4. What Is International Law?
      1. International law defines the legal responsibilities of States in their conduct with each other, and their treatment of individuals within State boundaries. Its domain encompasses a wide range of issues of international concern, such as human rights, disarmament, international crime, refugees, migration, problems of nationality, the treatment of prisoners, the use of force, and the conduct of war, among others. It also regulates the global commons, such as the environment and sustainable development, international waters, outer space, global communications and world trade.
      2. The Security Council and International Law
        1. Some of the action of the Security Council have international law implications, such as those related to peacekeeping missions, ad hoc tribunals, sanctions, and resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter. In accordance with Article 13(b) of the Rome Statute, the Security Council can refer certain situations to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), if it appears international crimes (such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, the crime of aggression) have been committed.
      3. The General Assembly and International Law
        1. The UN Charter gives the General Assembly the power to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote the development and codification of international law. Many subsidiary bodies of the General Assembly consider specific areas of international law and report to the plenary. Most legal matters are referred the Sixth Committee, which then reports to the plenary. The International Law Commission and the UN Commission on International Trade Law report to the General Assembly. The General Assembly also considers topics related to the institutional law of the United Nations, such as the adoption of the Staff Regulations and the establishment of the system of internal justice.
      4. General Assembly – Sixth Committee (Legal)
        1. The General Assembly’s Sixth Committee is the primary forum for the consideration of legal questions in the General Assembly. All UN Member States are entitled to representation on the Sixth Committee as one of the main committees of the General Assembly.
      5. International Law Commission
        1. The International Law Commission promotes the progressive development of international law and its codification.  The Commission’s work on a topic usually involves some aspects of the progressive development, as well as the codification of international law, with the balance between the two varying depending on the particular topic.
      6. United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
        1. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law is a core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law, with universal membership, specializing in commercial law, with a focus on the modernization and harmonization of rules on international business. The UNCITRAL Secretariat has established a Case Law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) system for collecting and disseminating information on court decisions and arbitral awards relating to the Conventions and Model Laws that have emanated from the work of the Commission.
      7. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
        1. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down a comprehensive regime of law and order in the world’s oceans and seas, establishing rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources.  The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) of the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations serves as the secretariat of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.
      8. UN Treaty Database
        1. The Status of Multilaterial Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General online database provides the most detailed information on the status of over 560 major multilateral instruments deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and covers a range of subject matters, such as Human Rights, Disarmament, Commodities, Refugees, the Environment, and the Law of the Sea. This database reflects the status of these instruments, as Member States sign, ratify, accede to, or lodge declarations, reservations or objections.
      9. The Internal Justice System at the United Nations
        1. A new Internal Justice System for the United Nations was introduced in 2009, with the goal of having a system that was independent, professionalized, expedient, transparent and decentralized, with a stronger emphasis on resolving disputes through informal means, before resorting to formal litigation.  Because the United Nations has immunity from local jurisdiction and cannot be sued in a national court, the Organization has set up an internal justice system to resolve staff-management disputes, including those that involve disciplinary action.
      10. Legal Resources and Training
        1. The historic archives at the Audiovisual Library of International Law provide a unique resource for the teaching, studying and researching significant legal instruments on international law.
        2. Legal Technical Assistance for UN Member States
          1. The United Nations currently offers Member States technical assistance in connection with a range of legal matters. Such assistance includes the provision of advice, expertise, research, analysis, training or other assistance.
        3. Programme of Assistance for International Law
          1. The Programme of Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of International Law is meant to contribute to a better knowledge of international law “as a means for strengthening international peace and security and promoting friendly relations and co-operation among States.” It is one of the cornerstones of the efforts of the United Nations to promote international law.
  3. National government

    1. The nation-state is the dominant type of political system in the contemporary world, and nationalism, or the creed that centres the supreme loyalty of the people upon the nation-state, is the dominating force in international politics. The national ideal triumphed as a result of the wars of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Napoleonic Wars, which spread the doctrines of the French Revolution, unleashed nationalism as a force in Europe and led to the Risorgimento in Italy and the emergence of Bismarck’s Germany. The two world wars of the 20th century carried the principles of national self-determination and liberal democracy around the world and gave birth to the independence movements that resulted in the foundation of new states in eastern Europe in 1919 and the emergence from colonial status of countries in Asia and Africa after 1945. The collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union itself completed this process of moving from multinational empires to truly sovereign national states.
    2. All the major forces of world politics—e.g., war, the development of national economies, and the demand for social services—have reinforced the national state as the primary focus of people’s loyalties. Wars have played the major part in strengthening national governments and weakening political regionalism and localism. The attachments that people have to subnational political communities are loosened when they must depend for their security on the national power. Even in the new age of total war—which few countries are capable of waging and even fewer of surviving—people look for their security to national governments rather than to international organizations. In nearly all contemporary states, the national budget is dominated by expenditures for defense, the military employs the largest fraction of the work force, and questions of national security pervade the discussion of politics.
    3. One of the lessons of the last century was that national sovereignty continues to be the most important obstacle not only to the emergence of new forms of supranational government but to effective international cooperation as well. Almost everywhere, attempts to achieve federation and other forms of multinational communication have foundered on the rocks of nationalism. The collapse of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and the Federation of Malaya, for example, were paralleled by the seeming ineffectiveness of the Organization of American States and the Arab League. On another level was the collapse of the Warsaw Pact when the countries of eastern Europe reclaimed their sovereignty in the late 1980s after decades of domination by the Soviet Union. In western Europe, however, countries joined together to form the supranational European Communities, which ultimately were succeeded by the European Union (EU) and expanded to encompass the bulk of the European continent. The countries of the EU are united not only by a long history and a common cultural inheritance but also by the expectation of mutual economic advantage. Even in this case, though, nationalism has proved to be an obstacle to the most ambitious goals of unification, which would severely limit national sovereignty in some spheres.
    4. At the international level, anarchy is the principal form of contemporary rule, for the nation-state’s freedom of action is limited only by its power. While the state’s freedom of action may not be directly threatened, the effectiveness of the state’s action in the economic realm is increasingly being called into question. The development of national industries in the 19th and early 20th centuries played a major part in strengthening national as against regional and local political entities, but the scale of economic activity has now outgrown national markets. Industrial combines and commercial groupings have emerged that cross national frontiers and require international markets. This tight integration of the world economy has limited the effectiveness of some traditional instruments used to influence national trends in capitalist economies.
    5. It is increasingly clear that some aspects of traditional sovereignty may be affected by serious efforts to confront some issues that act on the entire international system. National frontiers can no longer be adequately defended in an era of intercontinental ballistic missiles, especially with the rapid diffusion of the technology required for delivery systems as well as for nuclear weapons themselves. Action in this area is, by definition, an attempt to shape the national security policy of states, something very near the core of a state’s sovereignty. Concern over environmental matters could lead to more restrictive regimes than any arms-control provisions, ultimately shaping the way in which countries evolve economically. Destruction of major ecosystems, wasteful use of energy, and industrialization based on the use of fossil fuels are all national policies with international repercussions. As technology empowers more countries to directly affect the state of the planet as well as other countries, there are increasing incentives to limit the domestic policy choices of all countries.
  4. National government constitutions

  1. Afghanistan 2004
  2. Albania 1998 (rev. 2012)
  3. Algeria 1989 (reinst. 1996, rev. 2008)
  4. Andorra 1993
  5. Angola 2010
  6. Antigua and Barbuda 1981
  7. Argentina 1853 (reinst. 1983, rev. 1994)
  8. Armenia 1995 (rev. 2005)
  9. Australia 1901 (rev. 1985)
  10. Austria 1920 (reinst. 1945, rev. 2013)
  11. Azerbaijan 1995 (rev. 2009)
  12. Bahamas 1973 (rev. 2002)
  13. Bahrain 2002 (rev. 2012)
  14. Bangladesh 1972 (reinst. 1986, rev. 2014)
  15. Barbados 1966 (rev. 2007)
  16. Belarus 1994 (rev. 2004)
  17. Belgium 1831 (rev. 2014)
  18. Belize 1981 (rev. 2011)
  19. Benin 1990
  20. Bhutan 2008
  21. Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2009
  22. Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 (rev. 2009)
  23. Botswana 1966 (rev. 2005)
  24. Brazil 1988 (rev. 2015)
  25. Brunei Darussalam 1959 (rev. 2006)
  26. Bulgaria 1991 (rev. 2015)
  27. Burkina Faso 1991 (rev. 2012)
  28. Cambodia 1993 (rev. 2008)
  29. Cameroon 1972 (rev. 2008)
  30. Canada 1867 (rev. 2011)
  31. Cape Verde 1980 (rev. 1992)
  32. Chad 1996 (rev. 2005)
  33. Chile 1980 (rev. 2015)
  34. China 1982 (rev. 2004)
  35. Colombia 1991 (rev. 2015)Comoros 2001 (rev. 2009)
  36. Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2005 (rev. 2011)
  37. Costa Rica 1949 (rev. 2011)
  38. Croatia 1991 (rev. 2010)
  39. Cuba 1976 (rev. 2002)
  40. Cyprus 1960 (rev. 2013)
  41. Czech Republic 1993 (rev. 2013)
  42. Denmark 1953
  43. Djibouti 1992 (rev. 2010)
  44. Dominica 1978 (rev. 1984)
  45. Dominican Republic 2015
  46. Ecuador 2008 (rev. 2015)Egypt 2014
  47. El Salvador 1983 (rev. 2014)Equatorial Guinea 1991 (rev. 2012)
  48. Eritrea 1997
  49. Estonia 1992 (rev. 2015)
  50. Ethiopia 1994
  51. Fiji 2013
  52. Finland 1999 (rev. 2011)
  53. France 1958 (rev. 2008)
  54. Gabon 1991 (rev. 2011)
  55. Gambia 1996 (rev. 2004)
  56. Georgia 1995 (rev. 2013)
  57. Germany 1949 (rev. 2014)
  58. Ghana 1992 (rev. 1996)
  59. Greece 1975 (rev. 2008)
  60. Grenada 1973 (reinst. 1991, rev. 1992)
  61. Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)
  62. Guinea 2010
  63. Guinea-Bissau 1984 (rev. 1991)
  64. Guyana 1980 (rev. 2009)
  65. Haiti 1987 (rev. 2012)
  66. Honduras 1982 (rev. 2013)
  67. Hungary 2011 (rev. 2013)
  68. Iceland 1944 (rev. 2013)
  69. India 1949 (rev. 2015)
  70. Indonesia 1945 (reinst. 1959, rev. 2002)
  71. Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1979 (rev. 1989)
  72. Iraq 2005
  73. Ireland 1937 (rev. 2015
  74. Israel 1958 (rev. 2013)
  75. Italy 1947 (rev. 2012)
  76. Jamaica 1962 (rev. 2011)
  77. Japan 1946
  78. Jordan 1952 (rev. 2016)
  79. Kazakhstan 1995 (rev. 2011)
  80. Kenya 2010
  81. Kiribati 1979 (rev. 1995)
  82. Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of) 1972 (rev. 1998)
  83. Korea (Republic of) 1948 (rev. 1987)
  84. Kosovo 2008
  85. Kuwait 1962 (reinst. 1992)
  86. Kyrgyzstan 2010
  87. Lao People’s Democratic Republic 1991 (rev. 2003)
  88. Latvia 1922 (reinst. 1991, rev. 2014)
  89. Lebanon 1926 (rev. 2004)
  90. Lesotho 1993 (rev. 1998)
  91. Liberia 1986
  92. Libya 2011 (rev. 2012)
  93. Liechtenstein 1921 (rev. 2003)
  94. Lithuania 1992 (rev. 2006)
  95. Luxembourg 1868 (rev. 2009)
  96. Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of) 1991 (rev. 2011)
  97. Madagascar 2010
  98. Malawi 1994 (rev. 1999)
  99. Malaysia 1957 (rev. 2007)
  100. Maldives 2008
  101. Mali 1992
  102. Malta 1964 (rev. 2014)
  103. Marshall Islands 1979 (rev. 1995)
  104. Mauritania 1991 (rev. 2012)
  105. Mauritius 1968 (rev. 2011)
  106. Mexico 1917 (rev. 2015)
  107. Micronesia (Federated States of) 1978 (rev. 1990)
  108. Moldova (Republic of) 1994 (rev. 2006)
  109. Monaco 1962 (rev. 2002)
  110. Mongolia 1992 (rev. 2001
  111. Montenegro 2007
  112. Morocco 2011
  113. Mozambique 2004 (rev. 2007)
  114. Myanmar 2008
  115. Namibia 1990 (rev. 2010)
  116. Nauru 1968
  117. Nepal 2015
  118. Netherlands 1815 (rev. 2008)
  119. New Zealand 1852 (rev. 2014)
  120. Nicaragua 1987 (rev. 2014)
  121. Niger 2010
  122. Nigeria 1999
  123. Norway 1814 (rev. 2015)
  124. Oman 1996 (rev. 2011)
  125. Pakistan 1973 (reinst. 2002, rev. 2015)
  126. Palau 1981 (rev. 1992)
  127. Panama 1972 (rev. 2004)
  128. Papua New Guinea 1975 (rev. 2014)
  129. Paraguay 1992 (rev. 2011)
  130. Peru 1993 (rev. 2009)
  131. Philippines 1987
  132. Poland 1997 (rev. 2009)
  133. Portugal 1976 (rev. 2005)
  134. Qatar 2003
  135. Romania 1991 (rev. 2003)
  136. Russian Federation 1993 (rev. 2014)
  137. Rwanda 2003 (rev. 2015)
  138. Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983
  139. Saint Lucia 1978
  140. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979
  141. Samoa 1962 (rev. 2013)
  142. Sao Tome and Principe 1975 (rev. 1990)
  143. Saudi Arabia 1992 (rev. 2013)
  144. Senegal 2001 (rev. 2009)
  145. Serbia 2006
  146. Seychelles 1993 (rev. 2011)
  147. Sierra Leone 1991 (reinst. 1996, rev. 2008)
  148. Singapore 1963 (rev. 2010)
  149. Slovakia 1992 (rev. 2014)
  150. Slovenia 1991 (rev. 2013)
  151. Solomon Islands 1978 (rev. 2009)
  152. Somalia 2012
  153. South Africa 1996 (rev. 2012)
  154. South Sudan 2011 (rev. 2013)
  155. Spain 1978 (rev. 2011)
  156. Sri Lanka 1978 (rev. 2015)
  157. Sudan 2005
  158. Suriname 1987 (rev. 1992)
  159. Swaziland 2005
  160. Sweden 1974 (rev. 2012)
  161. Switzerland 1999 (rev. 2014)
  162. Syrian Arab Republic 2012
  163. Taiwan 1947 (rev. 2005)
  164. Tajikistan 1994 (rev. 2003)
  165. Thailand 2014
  166. Timor-Leste 2002
  167. Togo 1992 (rev. 2007)
  168. Tonga 1875 (rev. 1988)
  169. Trinidad and Tobago 1976 (rev. 2007)
  170. Tunisia 2014
  171. Turkey 1982 (rev. 2011)
  172. Turkmenistan 2008
  173. Tuvalu 1986
  174. Uganda 1995 (rev. 2005)
  175. Ukraine 1996 (rev. 2014)
  176. United Arab Emirates 1971 (rev. 2009)
  177. United Kingdom 1215 (rev. 2013)
  178. United Republic of Tanzania 1977 (rev. 1995)
  179. United States of America 1789 (rev. 1992)

    PREAMBLE

    1. WE THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, IN ORDER TO FORM A MORE PERFECT UNION, ESTABLISH JUSTICE, INSURE DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY, PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENSE, PROMOTE THE GENERAL WELFARE, AND SECURE THE BLESSINGS OF LIBERTY TO OURSELVES AND OUR POSTERITY, DO ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH THIS CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

    1. ARTICLE I

      1. SECTION 1

        1. ALL LEGISLATIVE POWERS HEREIN GRANTED SHALL BE VESTED IN A CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, WHICH SHALL CONSIST OF A SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL BE COMPOSED OF MEMBERS CHOSEN EVERY SECOND YEAR BY THE PEOPLE OF THE SEVERAL STATES, AND THE ELECTORS IN EACH STATE SHALL HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUISITE FOR ELECTORS OF THE MOST NUMEROUS BRANCH OF THE STATE LEGISLATURE.

        2. NO PERSON SHALL BE A REPRESENTATIVE WHO SHALL NOT HAVE ATTAINED TO THE AGE OF TWENTY FIVE YEARS, AND BEEN SEVEN YEARS A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WHO SHALL NOT, WHEN ELECTED, BE AN INHABITANT OF THAT STATE IN WHICH HE SHALL BE CHOSEN.

        3. REPRESENTATIVES AND DIRECT TAXES SHALL BE APPORTIONED AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED WITHIN THIS UNION, ACCORDING TO THEIR RESPECTIVE NUMBERS, WHICH SHALL BE DETERMINED BY ADDING TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF FREE PERSONS, INCLUDING THOSE BOUND TO SERVICE FOR A TERM OF YEARS, AND EXCLUDING INDIANS NOT TAXED, THREE FIFTHS OF ALL OTHER PERSONS. THE ACTUAL ENUMERATION SHALL BE MADE WITHIN THREE YEARS AFTER THE FIRST MEETING OF THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WITHIN EVERY SUBSEQUENT TERM OF TEN YEARS, IN SUCH MANNER AS THEY SHALL BY LAW DIRECT. THE NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL NOT EXCEED ONE FOR EVERY THIRTY THOUSAND, BUT EACH STATE SHALL HAVE AT LEAST ONE REPRESENTATIVE; AND UNTIL SUCH ENUMERATION SHALL BE MADE, THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE SHALL BE ENTITLED TO CHOOSE THREE, MASSACHUSETTS EIGHT, RHODE-ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS ONE, CONNECTICUT FIVE, NEW-YORK SIX, NEW JERSEY FOUR, PENNSYLVANIA EIGHT, DELAWARE ONE, MARYLAND SIX, VIRGINIA TEN, NORTH CAROLINA FIVE, SOUTH CAROLINA FIVE, AND GEORGIA THREE.

        4. WHEN VACANCIES HAPPEN IN THE REPRESENTATION FROM ANY STATE, THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY THEREOF SHALL ISSUE WRITS OF ELECTION TO FILL SUCH VACANCIES.

        5. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL CHOOSE THEIR SPEAKER AND OTHER OFFICERS; AND SHALL HAVE THE SOLE POWER OF IMPEACHMENT.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE COMPOSED OF TWO SENATORS FROM EACH STATE, CHOSEN BY THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF, FOR SIX YEARS; AND EACH SENATOR SHALL HAVE ONE VOTE.

        2. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEY SHALL BE ASSEMBLED IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE FIRST ELECTION, THEY SHALL BE DIVIDED AS EQUALLY AS MAY BE INTO THREE CLASSES. THE SEATS OF THE SENATORS OF THE FIRST CLASS SHALL BE VACATED AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE SECOND YEAR, OF THE SECOND CLASS AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE FOURTH YEAR, AND OF THE THIRD CLASS AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE SIXTH YEAR, SO THAT ONE THIRD MAY BE CHOSEN EVERY SECOND YEAR; AND IF VACANCIES HAPPEN BY RESIGNATION, OR OTHERWISE, DURING THE RECESS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF ANY STATE, THE EXECUTIVE THEREOF MAY MAKE TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS UNTIL THE NEXT MEETING OF THE LEGISLATURE, WHICH SHALL THEN FILL SUCH VACANCIES.

        3. NO PERSON SHALL BE A SENATOR WHO SHALL NOT HAVE ATTAINED TO THE AGE OF THIRTY YEARS, AND BEEN NINE YEARS A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WHO SHALL NOT, WHEN ELECTED, BE AN INHABITANT OF THAT STATE FOR WHICH HE SHALL BE CHOSEN.

        4. THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, BUT SHALL HAVE NO VOTE, UNLESS THEY BE EQUALLY DIVIDED.

        5. THE SENATE SHALL CHOOSE THEIR OTHER OFFICERS, AND ALSO A PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE, IN THE ABSENCE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT, OR WHEN HE SHALL EXERCISE THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

        6. THE SENATE SHALL HAVE THE SOLE POWER TO TRY ALL IMPEACHMENTS. WHEN SITTING FOR THAT PURPOSE, THEY SHALL BE ON OATH OR AFFIRMATION. WHEN THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IS TRIED, THE CHIEF JUSTICE SHALL PRESIDE: AND NO PERSON SHALL BE CONVICTED WITHOUT THE CONCURRENCE OF TWO THIRDS OF THE MEMBERS PRESENT.

        7. JUDGMENT IN CASES OF IMPEACHMENT SHALL NOT EXTEND FURTHER THAN TO REMOVAL FROM OFFICE, AND DISQUALIFICATION TO HOLD AND ENJOY ANY OFFICE OF HONOR, TRUST OR PROFIT UNDER THE UNITED STATES: BUT THE PARTY CONVICTED SHALL NEVERTHELESS BE LIABLE AND SUBJECT TO INDICTMENT, TRIAL, JUDGMENT AND PUNISHMENT, ACCORDING TO LAW.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE TIMES, PLACES AND MANNER OF HOLDING ELECTIONS FOR SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES, SHALL BE PRESCRIBED IN EACH STATE BY THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF; BUT THE CONGRESS MAY AT ANY TIME BY LAW MAKE OR ALTER SUCH REGULATIONS, EXCEPT AS TO THE PLACES OF CHOOSING SENATORS.

        2. THE CONGRESS SHALL ASSEMBLE AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY YEAR, AND SUCH MEETING SHALL BE ON THE FIRST MONDAY IN DECEMBER, UNLESS THEY SHALL BY LAW APPOINT A DIFFERENT DAY.

      5. SECTION 5

        1. EACH HOUSE SHALL BE THE JUDGE OF THE ELECTIONS, RETURNS AND QUALIFICATIONS OF ITS OWN MEMBERS, AND A MAJORITY OF EACH SHALL CONSTITUTE A QUORUM TO DO BUSINESS; BUT A SMALLER NUMBER MAY ADJOURN FROM DAY TO DAY, AND MAY BE AUTHORIZED TO COMPEL THE ATTENDANCE OF ABSENT MEMBERS, IN SUCH MANNER, AND UNDER SUCH PENALTIES AS EACH HOUSE MAY PROVIDE.

        2. EACH HOUSE MAY DETERMINE THE RULES OF ITS PROCEEDINGS, PUNISH ITS MEMBERS FOR DISORDERLY BEHAVIOUR, AND, WITH THE CONCURRENCE OF TWO THIRDS, EXPEL A MEMBER.

        3. EACH HOUSE SHALL KEEP A JOURNAL OF ITS PROCEEDINGS, AND FROM TIME TO TIME PUBLISH THE SAME, EXCEPTING SUCH PARTS AS MAY IN THEIR JUDGMENT REQUIRE SECRECY; AND THE YEAS AND NAYS OF THE MEMBERS OF EITHER HOUSE ON ANY QUESTION SHALL, AT THE DESIRE OF ONE FIFTH OF THOSE PRESENT, BE ENTERED ON THE JOURNAL.

        4. NEITHER HOUSE, DURING THE SESSION OF CONGRESS, SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE OTHER, ADJOURN FOR MORE THAN THREE DAYS, NOR TO ANY OTHER PLACE THAN THAT IN WHICH THE TWO HOUSES SHALL BE SITTING.

      6. SECTION 6

        1. THE SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES SHALL RECEIVE A COMPENSATION FOR THEIR SERVICES, TO BE ASCERTAINED BY LAW, AND PAID OUT OF THE TREASURY OF THE UNITED STATES. THEY SHALL IN ALL CASES, EXCEPT TREASON, FELONY AND BREACH OF THE PEACE, BE PRIVILEGED FROM ARREST DURING THEIR ATTENDANCE AT THE SESSION OF THEIR RESPECTIVE HOUSES, AND IN GOING TO AND RETURNING FROM THE SAME; AND FOR ANY SPEECH OR DEBATE IN EITHER HOUSE, THEY SHALL NOT BE QUESTIONED IN ANY OTHER PLACE.

        2. NO SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE SHALL, DURING THE TIME FOR WHICH HE WAS ELECTED, BE APPOINTED TO ANY CIVIL OFFICE UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES, WHICH SHALL HAVE BEEN CREATED, OR THE EMOLUMENTS WHEREOF SHALL HAVE BEEN INCREASED DURING SUCH TIME; AND NO PERSON HOLDING ANY OFFICE UNDER THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE A MEMBER OF EITHER HOUSE DURING HIS CONTINUANCE IN OFFICE.

      7. SECTION 7

        1. ALL BILLS FOR RAISING REVENUE SHALL ORIGINATE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES; BUT THE SENATE MAY PROPOSE OR CONCUR WITH AMENDMENTS AS ON OTHER BILLS.

        2. EVERY BILL WHICH SHALL HAVE PASSED THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE SENATE, SHALL, BEFORE IT BECOME A LAW, BE PRESENTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: IF HE APPROVE HE SHALL SIGN IT, BUT IF NOT HE SHALL RETURN IT, WITH HIS OBJECTIONS TO THAT HOUSE IN WHICH IT SHALL HAVE ORIGINATED, WHO SHALL ENTER THE OBJECTIONS AT LARGE ON THEIR JOURNAL, AND PROCEED TO RECONSIDER IT. IF AFTER SUCH RECONSIDERATION TWO THIRDS OF THAT HOUSE SHALL AGREE TO PASS THE BILL, IT SHALL BE SENT, TOGETHER WITH THE OBJECTIONS, TO THE OTHER HOUSE, BY WHICH IT SHALL LIKEWISE BE RECONSIDERED, AND IF APPROVED BY TWO THIRDS OF THAT HOUSE, IT SHALL BECOME A LAW. BUT IN ALL SUCH CASES THE VOTES OF BOTH HOUSES SHALL BE DETERMINED BY YEAS AND NAYS, AND THE NAMES OF THE PERSONS VOTING FOR AND AGAINST THE BILL SHALL BE ENTERED ON THE JOURNAL OF EACH HOUSE RESPECTIVELY. IF ANY BILL SHALL NOT BE RETURNED BY THE PRESIDENT WITHIN TEN DAYS (SUNDAYS EXCEPTED) AFTER IT SHALL HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO HIM, THE SAME SHALL BE A LAW, IN LIKE MANNER AS IF HE HAD SIGNED IT, UNLESS THE CONGRESS BY THEIR ADJOURNMENT PREVENT ITS RETURN, IN WHICH CASE IT SHALL NOT BE A LAW.

        3. EVERY ORDER, RESOLUTION, OR VOTE TO WHICH THE CONCURRENCE OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MAY BE NECESSARY (EXCEPT ON A QUESTION OF ADJOURNMENT) SHALL BE PRESENTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES; AND BEFORE THE SAME SHALL TAKE EFFECT, SHALL BE APPROVED BY HIM, OR BEING DISAPPROVED BY HIM, SHALL BE REPASSED BY TWO THIRDS OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, ACCORDING TO THE RULES AND LIMITATIONS PRESCRIBED IN THE CASE OF A BILL.

      8. SECTION 8

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO LAY AND COLLECT TAXES, DUTIES, IMPOSTS AND EXCISES, TO PAY THE DEBTS AND PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENCE AND GENERAL WELFARE OF THE UNITED STATES; BUT ALL DUTIES, IMPOSTS AND EXCISES SHALL BE UNIFORM THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES;

        2. TO BORROW MONEY ON THE CREDIT OF THE UNITED STATES;

        3. TO REGULATE COMMERCE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS, AND AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES, AND WITH THE INDIAN TRIBES;

        4. TO ESTABLISH AN UNIFORM RULE OF NATURALIZATION, AND UNIFORM LAWS ON THE SUBJECT OF BANKRUPTCIES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES;

        5. TO COIN MONEY, REGULATE THE VALUE THEREOF, AND OF FOREIGN COIN, AND FIX THE STANDARD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES;

        6. TO PROVIDE FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF COUNTERFEITING THE SECURITIES AND CURRENT COIN OF THE UNITED STATES;

        7. TO ESTABLISH POST OFFICES AND POST ROADS;

        8. TO PROMOTE THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND USEFUL ARTS, BY SECURING FOR LIMITED TIMES TO AUTHORS AND INVENTORS THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO THEIR RESPECTIVE WRITINGS AND DISCOVERIES;

        9. TO CONSTITUTE TRIBUNALS INFERIOR TO THE SUPREME COURT;

        10. TO DEFINE AND PUNISH PIRACIES AND FELONIES COMMITTED ON THE HIGH SEAS, AND OFFENCES AGAINST THE LAW OF NATIONS;

        11. TO DECLARE WAR, GRANT LETTERS OF MARQUE AND REPRISAL, AND MAKE RULES CONCERNING CAPTURES ON LAND AND WATER;

        12. TO RAISE AND SUPPORT ARMIES, BUT NO APPROPRIATION OF MONEY TO THAT USE SHALL BE FOR A LONGER TERM THAN TWO YEARS;

        13. TO PROVIDE AND MAINTAIN A NAVY;

        14. TO MAKE RULES FOR THE GOVERNMENT AND REGULATION OF THE LAND AND NAVAL FORCES;

        15. TO PROVIDE FOR CALLING FORTH THE MILITIA TO EXECUTE THE LAWS OF THE UNION, SUPPRESS INSURRECTIONS AND REPEL INVASIONS;

        16. TO PROVIDE FOR ORGANIZING, ARMING, AND DISCIPLINING, THE MILITIA, AND FOR GOVERNING SUCH PART OF THEM AS MAY BE EMPLOYED IN THE SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES, RESERVING TO THE STATES RESPECTIVELY, THE APPOINTMENT OF THE OFFICERS, AND THE AUTHORITY OF TRAINING THE MILITIA ACCORDING TO THE DISCIPLINE PRESCRIBED BY CONGRESS;

        17. TO EXERCISE EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATION IN ALL CASES WHATSOEVER, OVER SUCH DISTRICT (NOT EXCEEDING TEN MILES SQUARE) AS MAY, BY CESSION OF PARTICULAR STATES, AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF CONGRESS, BECOME THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, AND TO EXERCISE LIKE AUTHORITY OVER ALL PLACES PURCHASED BY THE CONSENT OF THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE IN WHICH THE SAME SHALL BE, FOR THE ERECTION OF FORTS, MAGAZINES, ARSENALS, DOCK-YARDS, AND OTHER NEEDFUL BUILDINGS;-AND

        18. TO MAKE ALL LAWS WHICH SHALL BE NECESSARY AND PROPER FOR CARRYING INTO EXECUTION THE FOREGOING POWERS, AND ALL OTHER POWERS VESTED BY THIS CONSTITUTION IN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, OR IN ANY DEPARTMENT OR OFFICER THEREOF.

      9. SECTION 9

        1. THE MIGRATION OR IMPORTATION OF SUCH PERSONS AS ANY OF THE STATES NOW EXISTING SHALL THINK PROPER TO ADMIT, SHALL NOT BE PROHIBITED BY THE CONGRESS PRIOR TO THE YEAR ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND EIGHT, BUT A TAX OR DUTY MAY BE IMPOSED ON SUCH IMPORTATION, NOT EXCEEDING TEN DOLLARS FOR EACH PERSON.

        2. THE PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS SHALL NOT BE SUSPENDED, UNLESS WHEN IN CASES OF REBELLION OR INVASION THE PUBLIC SAFETY MAY REQUIRE IT.

        3. NO BILL OF ATTAINDER OR EX POST FACTO LAW SHALL BE PASSED.

        4. NO CAPITATION, OR OTHER DIRECT, TAX SHALL BE LAID, UNLESS IN PROPORTION TO THE CENSUS OR ENUMERATION HEREIN BEFORE DIRECTED TO BE TAKEN.

        5. NO TAX OR DUTY SHALL BE LAID ON ARTICLES EXPORTED FROM ANY STATE.

        6. NO PREFERENCE SHALL BE GIVEN BY ANY REGULATION OF COMMERCE OR REVENUE TO THE PORTS OF ONE STATE OVER THOSE OF ANOTHER; NOR SHALL VESSELS BOUND TO, OR FROM, ONE STATE, BE OBLIGED TO ENTER, CLEAR, OR PAY DUTIES IN ANOTHER.

        7. NO MONEY SHALL BE DRAWN FROM THE TREASURY, BUT IN CONSEQUENCE OF APPROPRIATIONS MADE BY LAW; AND A REGULAR STATEMENT AND ACCOUNT OF THE RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF ALL PUBLIC MONEY SHALL BE PUBLISHED FROM TIME TO TIME.

        8. NO TITLE OF NOBILITY SHALL BE GRANTED BY THE UNITED STATES: AND NO PERSON HOLDING ANY OFFICE OF PROFIT OR TRUST UNDER THEM, SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE CONGRESS, ACCEPT OF ANY PRESENT, EMOLUMENT, OFFICE, OR TITLE, OF ANY KIND WHATEVER, FROM ANY KING, PRINCE, OR FOREIGN STATE.

      10. SECTION 10

        1. NO STATE SHALL ENTER INTO ANY TREATY, ALLIANCE, OR CONFEDERATION; GRANT LETTERS OF MARQUE AND REPRISAL; COIN MONEY; EMIT BILLS OF CREDIT; MAKE ANY THING BUT GOLD AND SILVER COIN A TENDER IN PAYMENT OF DEBTS; PASS ANY BILL OF ATTAINDER, EX POST FACTO LAW, OR LAW IMPAIRING THE OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS, OR GRANT ANY TITLE OF NOBILITY.

        2. NO STATE SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE CONGRESS, LAY ANY IMPOSTS OR DUTIES ON IMPORTS OR EXPORTS, EXCEPT WHAT MAY BE ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY FOR EXECUTING ITS INSPECTION LAWS: AND THE NET PRODUCE OF ALL DUTIES AND IMPOSTS, LAID BY ANY STATE ON IMPORTS OR EXPORTS, SHALL BE FOR THE USE OF THE TREASURY OF THE UNITED STATES; AND ALL SUCH LAWS SHALL BE SUBJECT TO THE REVISION AND CONTROL OF THE CONGRESS.

        3. NO STATE SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF CONGRESS, LAY ANY DUTY OF TONNAGE, KEEP TROOPS, OR SHIPS OF WAR IN TIME OF PEACE, ENTER INTO ANY AGREEMENT OR COMPACT WITH ANOTHER STATE, OR WITH A FOREIGN POWER, OR ENGAGE IN WAR, UNLESS ACTUALLY INVADED, OR IN SUCH IMMINENT DANGER AS WILL NOT ADMIT OF DELAY.

    2. ARTICLE II

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE EXECUTIVE POWER SHALL BE VESTED IN A PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. HE SHALL HOLD HIS OFFICE DURING THE TERM OF FOUR YEARS, AND, TOGETHER WITH THE VICE PRESIDENT, CHOSEN FOR THE SAME TERM, BE ELECTED, AS FOLLOWS:

        2. EACH STATE SHALL APPOINT, IN SUCH MANNER AS THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF MAY DIRECT, A NUMBER OF ELECTORS, EQUAL TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES TO WHICH THE STATE MAY BE ENTITLED IN THE CONGRESS: BUT NO SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE, OR PERSON HOLDING AN OFFICE OF TRUST OR PROFIT UNDER THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE APPOINTED AN ELECTOR.

        3. THE ELECTORS SHALL MEET IN THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES, AND VOTE BY BALLOT FOR TWO PERSONS, OF WHOM ONE AT LEAST SHALL NOT BE AN INHABITANT OF THE SAME STATE WITH THEMSELVES. AND THEY SHALL MAKE A LIST OF ALL THE PERSONS VOTED FOR, AND OF THE NUMBER OF VOTES FOR EACH; WHICH LIST THEY SHALL SIGN AND CERTIFY, AND TRANSMIT SEALED TO THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DIRECTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE SHALL, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, OPEN ALL THE CERTIFICATES, AND THE VOTES SHALL THEN BE COUNTED. THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES SHALL BE THE PRESIDENT, IF SUCH NUMBER BE A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF ELECTORS APPOINTED; AND IF THERE BE MORE THAN ONE WHO HAVE SUCH MAJORITY, AND HAVE AN EQUAL NUMBER OF VOTES, THEN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL IMMEDIATELY CHOOSE BY BALLOT ONE OF THEM FOR PRESIDENT; AND IF NO PERSON HAVE A MAJORITY, THEN FROM THE FIVE HIGHEST ON THE LIST THE SAID HOUSE SHALL IN LIKE MANNER CHOOSE THE PRESIDENT. BUT IN CHOOSING THE PRESIDENT, THE VOTES SHALL BE TAKEN BY STATES, THE REPRESENTATIVES FROM EACH STATE HAVING ONE VOTE; A QUORUM FOR THIS PURPOSE SHALL CONSIST OF A MEMBER OR MEMBERS FROM TWO THIRDS OF THE STATES, AND A MAJORITY OF ALL THE STATES SHALL BE NECESSARY TO A CHOICE. IN EVERY CASE, AFTER THE CHOICE OF THE PRESIDENT, THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES OF THE ELECTORS SHALL BE THE VICE PRESIDENT. BUT IF THERE SHOULD REMAIN TWO OR MORE WHO HAVE EQUAL VOTES, THE SENATE SHALL CHOOSE FROM THEM BY BALLOT THE VICE-PRESIDENT.

        4. THE CONGRESS MAY DETERMINE THE TIME OF CHOOSING THE ELECTORS, AND THE DAY ON WHICH THEY SHALL GIVE THEIR VOTES; WHICH DAY SHALL BE THE SAME THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES.

        5. NO PERSON EXCEPT A NATURAL BORN CITIZEN, OR A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES, AT THE TIME OF THE ADOPTION OF THIS CONSTITUTION, SHALL BE ELIGIBLE TO THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT; NEITHER SHALL ANY PERSON BE ELIGIBLE TO THAT OFFICE WHO SHALL NOT HAVE ATTAINED TO THE AGE OF THIRTY FIVE YEARS, AND BEEN FOURTEEN YEARS A RESIDENT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES.

        6. IN CASE OF THE REMOVAL OF THE PRESIDENT FROM OFFICE, OR OF HIS DEATH, RESIGNATION, OR INABILITY TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE SAID OFFICE, THE SAME SHALL DEVOLVE ON THE VICE PRESIDENT, AND THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE FOR THE CASE OF REMOVAL, DEATH, RESIGNATION OR INABILITY, BOTH OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT, DECLARING WHAT OFFICER SHALL THEN ACT AS PRESIDENT, AND SUCH OFFICER SHALL ACT ACCORDINGLY, UNTIL THE DISABILITY BE REMOVED, OR A PRESIDENT SHALL BE ELECTED.

        7. THE PRESIDENT SHALL, AT STATED TIMES, RECEIVE FOR HIS SERVICES, A COMPENSATION, WHICH SHALL NEITHER BE INCREASED NOR DIMINISHED DURING THE PERIOD FOR WHICH HE SHALL HAVE BEEN ELECTED, AND HE SHALL NOT RECEIVE WITHIN THAT PERIOD ANY OTHER EMOLUMENT FROM THE UNITED STATES, OR ANY OF THEM.

        8. BEFORE HE ENTER ON THE EXECUTION OF HIS OFFICE, HE SHALL TAKE THE FOLLOWING OATH OR AFFIRMATION:-“I DO SOLEMNLY SWEAR (OR AFFIRM) THAT I WILL FAITHFULLY EXECUTE THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WILL TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY, PRESERVE, PROTECT AND DEFEND THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.”

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE PRESIDENT SHALL BE COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE ARMY AND NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES, AND OF THE MILITIA OF THE SEVERAL STATES, WHEN CALLED INTO THE ACTUAL SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES; HE MAY REQUIRE THE OPINION, IN WRITING, OF THE PRINCIPAL OFFICER IN EACH OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS, UPON ANY SUBJECT RELATING TO THE DUTIES OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OFFICES, AND HE SHALL HAVE POWER TO GRANT REPRIEVES AND PARDONS FOR OFFENCES AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT IN CASES OF IMPEACHMENT.

        2. HE SHALL HAVE POWER, BY AND WITH THE ADVICE AND CONSENT OF THE SENATE, TO MAKE TREATIES, PROVIDED TWO THIRDS OF THE SENATORS PRESENT CONCUR; AND HE SHALL NOMINATE, AND BY AND WITH THE ADVICE AND CONSENT OF THE SENATE, SHALL APPOINT AMBASSADORS, OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS AND CONSULS, JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT, AND ALL OTHER OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES, WHOSE APPOINTMENTS ARE NOT HEREIN OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, AND WHICH SHALL BE ESTABLISHED BY LAW: BUT THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW VEST THE APPOINTMENT OF SUCH INFERIOR OFFICERS, AS THEY THINK PROPER, IN THE PRESIDENT ALONE, IN THE COURTS OF LAW, OR IN THE HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS.

        3. THE PRESIDENT SHALL HAVE POWER TO FILL UP ALL VACANCIES THAT MAY HAPPEN DURING THE RECESS OF THE SENATE, BY GRANTING COMMISSIONS WHICH SHALL EXPIRE AT THE END OF THEIR NEXT SESSION.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. HE SHALL FROM TIME TO TIME GIVE TO THE CONGRESS INFORMATION ON THE STATE OF THE UNION, AND RECOMMEND TO THEIR CONSIDERATION SUCH MEASURES AS HE SHALL JUDGE NECESSARY AND EXPEDIENT; HE MAY, ON EXTRAORDINARY OCCASIONS, CONVENE BOTH HOUSES, OR EITHER OF THEM, AND IN CASE OF DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN THEM, WITH RESPECT TO THE TIME OF ADJOURNMENT, HE MAY ADJOURN THEM TO SUCH TIME AS HE SHALL THINK PROPER; HE SHALL RECEIVE AMBASSADORS AND OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS; HE SHALL TAKE CARE THAT THE LAWS BE FAITHFULLY EXECUTED, AND SHALL COMMISSION ALL THE OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES.

      4. SECTION 4

      5. THE PRESIDENT, VICE PRESIDENT AND ALL CIVIL OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE REMOVED FROM OFFICE ON IMPEACHMENT FOR, AND CONVICTION OF, TREASON, BRIBERY, OR OTHER HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS.

    3. ARTICLE III

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE VESTED IN ONE SUPREME COURT, AND IN SUCH INFERIOR COURTS AS THE CONGRESS MAY FROM TIME TO TIME ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH. THE JUDGES, BOTH OF THE SUPREME AND INFERIOR COURTS, SHALL HOLD THEIR OFFICES DURING GOOD BEHAVIOUR, AND SHALL, AT STATED TIMES, RECEIVE FOR THEIR SERVICES, A COMPENSATION, WHICH SHALL NOT BE DIMINISHED DURING THEIR CONTINUANCE IN OFFICE.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE JUDICIAL POWER SHALL EXTEND TO ALL CASES, IN LAW AND EQUITY, ARISING UNDER THIS CONSTITUTION, THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, AND TREATIES MADE, OR WHICH SHALL BE MADE, UNDER THEIR AUTHORITY;-TO ALL CASES AFFECTING AMBASSADORS, OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS AND CONSULS;-TO ALL CASES OF ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME JURISDICTION;-TO CONTROVERSIES TO WHICH THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE A PARTY;-TO CONTROVERSIES BETWEEN TWO OR MORE STATES;-BETWEEN A STATE AND CITIZENS OF ANOTHER STATE;-BETWEEN CITIZENS OF DIFFERENT STATES;-BETWEEN CITIZENS OF THE SAME STATE CLAIMING LANDS UNDER GRANTS OF DIFFERENT STATES, AND BETWEEN A STATE, OR THE CITIZENS THEREOF, AND FOREIGN STATES, CITIZENS OR SUBJECTS.

        2. IN ALL CASES AFFECTING AMBASSADORS, OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS AND CONSULS, AND THOSE IN WHICH A STATE SHALL BE PARTY, THE SUPREME COURT SHALL HAVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION. IN ALL THE OTHER CASES BEFORE MENTIONED, THE SUPREME COURT SHALL HAVE APPELLATE JURISDICTION, BOTH AS TO LAW AND FACT, WITH SUCH EXCEPTIONS, AND UNDER SUCH REGULATIONS AS THE CONGRESS SHALL MAKE.

        3. THE TRIAL OF ALL CRIMES, EXCEPT IN CASES OF IMPEACHMENT, SHALL BE BY JURY; AND SUCH TRIAL SHALL BE HELD IN THE STATE WHERE THE SAID CRIMES SHALL HAVE BEEN COMMITTED; BUT WHEN NOT COMMITTED WITHIN ANY STATE, THE TRIAL SHALL BE AT SUCH PLACE OR PLACES AS THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW HAVE DIRECTED.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. TREASON AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, SHALL CONSIST ONLY IN LEVYING WAR AGAINST THEM, OR IN ADHERING TO THEIR ENEMIES, GIVING THEM AID AND COMFORT. NO PERSON SHALL BE CONVICTED OF TREASON UNLESS ON THE TESTIMONY OF TWO WITNESSES TO THE SAME OVERT ACT, OR ON CONFESSION IN OPEN COURT.

        2. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO DECLARE THE PUNISHMENT OF TREASON, BUT NO ATTAINDER OF TREASON SHALL WORK CORRUPTION OF BLOOD, OR FORFEITURE EXCEPT DURING THE LIFE OF THE PERSON ATTAINTED.

    4. ARTICLE IV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. FULL FAITH AND CREDIT SHALL BE GIVEN IN EACH STATE TO THE PUBLIC ACTS, RECORDS, AND JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS OF EVERY OTHER STATE. AND THE CONGRESS MAY BY GENERAL LAWS PRESCRIBE THE MANNER IN WHICH SUCH ACTS, RECORDS AND PROCEEDINGS SHALL BE PROVED, AND THE EFFECT THEREOF.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CITIZENS OF EACH STATE SHALL BE ENTITLED TO ALL PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENS IN THE SEVERAL STATES.

        2. A PERSON CHARGED IN ANY STATE WITH TREASON, FELONY, OR OTHER CRIME, WHO SHALL FLEE FROM JUSTICE, AND BE FOUND IN ANOTHER STATE, SHALL ON DEMAND OF THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY OF THE STATE FROM WHICH HE FLED, BE DELIVERED UP, TO BE REMOVED TO THE STATE HAVING JURISDICTION OF THE CRIME.

        3. NO PERSON HELD TO SERVICE OR LABOUR IN ONE STATE, UNDER THE LAWS THEREOF, ESCAPING INTO ANOTHER, SHALL, IN CONSEQUENCE OF ANY LAW OR REGULATION THEREIN, BE DISCHARGED FROM SUCH SERVICE OR LABOUR, BUT SHALL BE DELIVERED UP ON CLAIM OF THE PARTY TO WHOM SUCH SERVICE OR LABOUR MAY BE DUE.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. NEW STATES MAY BE ADMITTED BY THE CONGRESS INTO THIS UNION; BUT NO NEW STATE SHALL BE FORMED OR ERECTED WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF ANY OTHER STATE; NOR ANY STATE BE FORMED BY THE JUNCTION OF TWO OR MORE STATES, OR PARTS OF STATES, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE LEGISLATURES OF THE STATES CONCERNED AS WELL AS OF THE CONGRESS.

        2. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO DISPOSE OF AND MAKE ALL NEEDFUL RULES AND REGULATIONS RESPECTING THE TERRITORY OR OTHER PROPERTY BELONGING TO THE UNITED STATES; AND NOTHING IN THIS CONSTITUTION SHALL BE SO CONSTRUED AS TO PREJUDICE ANY CLAIMS OF THE UNITED STATES, OR OF ANY PARTICULAR STATE.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE UNITED STATES SHALL GUARANTEE TO EVERY STATE IN THIS UNION A REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT, AND SHALL PROTECT EACH OF THEM AGAINST INVASION; AND ON APPLICATION OF THE LEGISLATURE, OR OF THE EXECUTIVE (WHEN THE LEGISLATURE CANNOT BE CONVENED) AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.

    5. ARTICLE V

      1. THE CONGRESS, WHENEVER TWO THIRDS OF BOTH HOUSES SHALL DEEM IT NECESSARY, SHALL PROPOSE AMENDMENTS TO THIS CONSTITUTION, OR, ON THE APPLICATION OF THE LEGISLATURES OF TWO THIRDS OF THE SEVERAL STATES, SHALL CALL A CONVENTION FOR PROPOSING AMENDMENTS, WHICH, IN EITHER CASE, SHALL BE VALID TO ALL INTENTS AND PURPOSES, AS PART OF THIS CONSTITUTION, WHEN RATIFIED BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THREE FOURTHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES, OR BY CONVENTIONS IN THREE FOURTHS THEREOF, AS THE ONE OR THE OTHER MODE OF RATIFICATION MAY BE PROPOSED BY THE CONGRESS; PROVIDED THAT NO AMENDMENT WHICH MAY BE MADE PRIOR TO THE YEAR ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND EIGHT SHALL IN ANY MANNER AFFECT THE FIRST AND FOURTH CLAUSES IN THE NINTH SECTION OF THE FIRST ARTICLE; AND THAT NO STATE, WITHOUT ITS CONSENT, SHALL BE DEPRIVED OF ITS EQUAL SUFFRAGE IN THE SENATE.

    6. ARTICLE VI

      1. ALL DEBTS CONTRACTED AND ENGAGEMENTS ENTERED INTO, BEFORE THE ADOPTION OF THIS CONSTITUTION, SHALL BE AS VALID AGAINST THE UNITED STATES UNDER THIS CONSTITUTION, AS UNDER THE CONFEDERATION.

      2. THIS CONSTITUTION, AND THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES WHICH SHALL BE MADE IN PURSUANCE THEREOF; AND ALL TREATIES MADE, OR WHICH SHALL BE MADE, UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND; AND THE JUDGES IN EVERY STATE SHALL BE BOUND THEREBY, ANY THING IN THE CONSTITUTION OR LAWS OF ANY STATE TO THE CONTRARY NOTWITHSTANDING.

      3. THE SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES BEFORE MENTIONED, AND THE MEMBERS OF THE SEVERAL STATE LEGISLATURES, AND ALL EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS, BOTH OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF THE SEVERAL STATES, SHALL BE BOUND BY OATH OR AFFIRMATION, TO SUPPORT THIS CONSTITUTION; BUT NO RELIGIOUS TEST SHALL EVER BE REQUIRED AS A QUALIFICATION TO ANY OFFICE OR PUBLIC TRUST UNDER THE UNITED STATES.

    7. ARTICLE VII

      1. THE RATIFICATION OF THE CONVENTIONS OF NINE STATES, SHALL BE SUFFICIENT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THIS CONSTITUTION BETWEEN THE STATES SO RATIFYING THE SAME.

      2. DONE IN CONVENTION BY THE UNANIMOUS CONSENT OF THE STATES PRESENT THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF SEPTEMBER IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD ONE THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY SEVEN AND OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA THE TWELFTH. IN WITNESS WHEREOF WE HAVE HEREUNTO SUBSCRIBED OUR NAMES,

        1. GO. WASHINGTON-

          1. PRESIDT AND DEPUTY FROM VIRGINIA
        2. NEW HAMPSHIRE: JOHN LANGDON, NICHOLAS GILMAN.

        3. MASSACHUSETTS: NATHANIEL GORHAM, RUFUS KING.

        4. CONNECTICUT: WM. SAML. JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN.

        5. NEW YORK: ALEXANDER HAMILTON.

        6. NEW JERSEY: WIL: LIVINGSTON, DAVID BREARLEY, WM. PATERSON, JONA. DAYTON.

        7. PENNSYLVANIA: B. FRANKLIN, ROBT. MORRIS, THO: FITZSIMONS, JAMES WILSON, THOMAS MIFFLIN, GEO. CLYMER, JARED INGERSOLL, GOUV: MORRIS.

        8. DELAWARE: GEO: READ, JOHN DICKINSON, JACO: BROOM, GUNNING BEDFORD, JUN’R, RICHARD BASSETT.

        9. MARYLAND: JAMES M’HENRY, DANL CARROLL, DAN: OF ST. THOS. JENIFER.

        10. VIRGINIA: JOHN BLAIR, JAMES MADISON, JR.

        11. NORTH CAROLINA: WM. BLOUNT, HU. WILLIAMSON, RICH’D DOBBS SPAIGHT.

        12. SOUTH CAROLINA: J. RUTLEDGE, CHARLES PINCKNEY, CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, PIERCE BUTLER.

        13. GEORGIA WILLIAM: FEW, ABR. BALDWIN

        14. ATTEST: WILLIAM JACKSON, SECRETARY.

    8.  Current Presidential Signature? Hmm…

    9. Your Signature X _________________________________________________
    10. Your Notary’s Signature X________________________________________
    11. AMENDMENT I

      1. CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, OR PROHIBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOF; OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH, OR OF THE PRESS; OR THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE PEACEABLY TO ASSEMBLE, AND TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES.

    12. AMENDMENT II

      1. A WELL REGULATED MILITIA, BEING NECESSARY TO THE SECURITY OF A FREE STATE, THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS, SHALL NOT BE INFRINGED.

    13. AMENDMENT III

      1. NO SOLDIER SHALL, IN TIME OF PEACE BE QUARTERED IN ANY HOUSE, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE OWNER, NOR IN TIME OF WAR, BUT IN A MANNER TO BE PRESCRIBED BY LAW.

    14. AMENDMENT IV

      1. THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO BE SECURE IN THEIR PERSONS, HOUSES, PAPERS, AND EFFECTS, AGAINST UNREASONABLE SEARCHES AND SEIZURES, SHALL NOT BE VIOLATED, AND NO WARRANTS SHALL ISSUE, BUT UPON PROBABLE CAUSE, SUPPORTED BY OATH OR AFFIRMATION, AND PARTICULARLY DESCRIBING THE PLACE TO BE SEARCHED, AND THE PERSONS OR THINGS TO BE SEIZED.

    15. AMENDMENT V

      1. NO PERSON SHALL BE HELD TO ANSWER FOR A CAPITAL, OR OTHERWISE INFAMOUS CRIME, UNLESS ON A PRESENTMENT OR INDICTMENT OF A GRAND JURY, EXCEPT IN CASES ARISING IN THE LAND OR NAVAL FORCES, OR IN THE MILITIA, WHEN IN ACTUAL SERVICE IN TIME OF WAR OR PUBLIC DANGER; NOR SHALL ANY PERSON BE SUBJECT FOR THE SAME OFFENCE TO BE TWICE PUT IN JEOPARDY OF LIFE OR LIMB; NOR SHALL BE COMPELLED IN ANY CRIMINAL CASE TO BE A WITNESS AGAINST HIMSELF, NOR BE DEPRIVED OF LIFE, LIBERTY, OR PROPERTY, WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW; NOR SHALL PRIVATE PROPERTY BE TAKEN FOR PUBLIC USE, WITHOUT JUST COMPENSATION.

    16. AMENDMENT VI

      1. IN ALL CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS, THE ACCUSED SHALL ENJOY THE RIGHT TO A SPEEDY AND PUBLIC TRIAL, BY AN IMPARTIAL JURY OF THE STATE AND DISTRICT WHEREIN THE CRIME SHALL HAVE BEEN COMMITTED, WHICH DISTRICT SHALL HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY ASCERTAINED BY LAW, AND TO BE INFORMED OF THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF THE ACCUSATION; TO BE CONFRONTED WITH THE WITNESSES AGAINST HIM; TO HAVE COMPULSORY PROCESS FOR OBTAINING WITNESSES IN HIS FAVOR, AND TO HAVE THE ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL FOR HIS DEFENCE.

    17. AMENDMENT VII

      1. IN SUITS AT COMMON LAW, WHERE THE VALUE IN CONTROVERSY SHALL EXCEED TWENTY DOLLARS, THE RIGHT OF TRIAL BY JURY SHALL BE PRESERVED, AND NO FACT TRIED BY A JURY, SHALL BE OTHERWISE RE-EXAMINED IN ANY COURT OF THE UNITED STATES, THAN ACCORDING TO THE RULES OF THE COMMON LAW.

    18. AMENDMENT VIII

      1. EXCESSIVE BAIL SHALL NOT BE REQUIRED, NOR EXCESSIVE FINES IMPOSED, NOR CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENTS INFLICTED.

    19. AMENDMENT IX

      1. THE ENUMERATION IN THE CONSTITUTION, OF CERTAIN RIGHTS, SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO DENY OR DISPARAGE OTHERS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE.

    20. AMENDMENT X

      1. THE POWERS NOT DELEGATED TO THE UNITED STATES BY THE CONSTITUTION, NOR PROHIBITED BY IT TO THE STATES, ARE RESERVED TO THE STATES RESPECTIVELY, OR TO THE PEOPLE.

    21. AMENDMENT XI

      1. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO EXTEND TO ANY SUIT IN LAW OR EQUITY, COMMENCED OR PROSECUTED AGAINST ONE OF THE UNITED STATES BY CITIZENS OF ANOTHER STATE, OR BY CITIZENS OR SUBJECTS OF ANY FOREIGN STATE.

    22. AMENDMENT XII

      1. THE ELECTORS SHALL MEET IN THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES AND VOTE BY BALLOT FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT, ONE OF WHOM, AT LEAST, SHALL NOT BE AN INHABITANT OF THE SAME STATE WITH THEMSELVES; THEY SHALL NAME IN THEIR BALLOTS THE PERSON VOTED FOR AS PRESIDENT, AND IN DISTINCT BALLOTS THE PERSON VOTED FOR AS VICE-PRESIDENT, AND THEY SHALL MAKE DISTINCT LISTS OF ALL PERSONS VOTED FOR AS PRESIDENT, AND OF ALL PERSONS VOTED FOR AS VICE-PRESIDENT, AND OF THE NUMBER OF VOTES FOR EACH, WHICH LISTS THEY SHALL SIGN AND CERTIFY, AND TRANSMIT SEALED TO THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DIRECTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE;-THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE SHALL, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, OPEN ALL THE CERTIFICATES AND THE VOTES SHALL THEN BE COUNTED;-THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES FOR PRESIDENT, SHALL BE THE PRESIDENT, IF SUCH NUMBER BE A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF ELECTORS APPOINTED; AND IF NO PERSON HAVE SUCH MAJORITY, THEN FROM THE PERSONS HAVING THE HIGHEST NUMBERS NOT EXCEEDING THREE ON THE LIST OF THOSE VOTED FOR AS PRESIDENT, THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL CHOOSE IMMEDIATELY, BY BALLOT, THE PRESIDENT. BUT IN CHOOSING THE PRESIDENT, THE VOTES SHALL BE TAKEN BY STATES, THE REPRESENTATION FROM EACH STATE HAVING ONE VOTE; A QUORUM FOR THIS PURPOSE SHALL CONSIST OF A MEMBER OR MEMBERS FROM TWO-THIRDS OF THE STATES, AND A MAJORITY OF ALL THE STATES SHALL BE NECESSARY TO A CHOICE. AND IF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL NOT CHOOSE A PRESIDENT WHENEVER THE RIGHT OF CHOICE SHALL DEVOLVE UPON THEM, BEFORE THE FOURTH DAY OF MARCH NEXT FOLLOWING, THEN THE VICE-PRESIDENT SHALL ACT AS PRESIDENT, AS IN THE CASE OF THE DEATH OR OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL DISABILITY OF THE PRESIDENT-THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES AS VICE-PRESIDENT, SHALL BE THE VICE-PRESIDENT, IF SUCH NUMBER BE A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF ELECTORS APPOINTED, AND IF NO PERSON HAVE A MAJORITY, THEN FROM THE TWO HIGHEST NUMBERS ON THE LIST, THE SENATE SHALL CHOOSE THE VICE-PRESIDENT; A QUORUM FOR THE PURPOSE SHALL CONSIST OF TWO-THIRDS OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF SENATORS, AND A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER SHALL BE NECESSARY TO A CHOICE. BUT NO PERSON CONSTITUTIONALLY INELIGIBLE TO THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT SHALL BE ELIGIBLE TO THAT OF VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

    23. AMENDMENT XIII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. NEITHER SLAVERY NOR INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, EXCEPT AS A PUNISHMENT FOR CRIME WHEREOF THE PARTY SHALL HAVE BEEN DULY CONVICTED, SHALL EXIST WITHIN THE UNITED STATES, OR ANY PLACE SUBJECT TO THEIR JURISDICTION.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    24. AMENDMENT XIV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. ALL PERSONS BORN OR NATURALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES AND SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF, ARE CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF THE STATE WHEREIN THEY RESIDE. NO STATE SHALL MAKE OR ENFORCE ANY LAW WHICH SHALL ABRIDGE THE PRIVILEGES OR IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; NOR SHALL ANY STATE DEPRIVE ANY PERSON OF LIFE, LIBERTY, OR PROPERTY, WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW; NOR DENY TO ANY PERSON WITHIN ITS JURISDICTION THE EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. REPRESENTATIVES SHALL BE APPORTIONED AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES ACCORDING TO THEIR RESPECTIVE NUMBERS, COUNTING THE WHOLE NUMBER OF PERSONS IN EACH STATE, EXCLUDING INDIANS NOT TAXED. BUT WHEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE AT ANY ELECTION FOR THE CHOICE OF ELECTORS FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS, THE EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS OF A STATE, OR THE MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF, IS DENIED TO ANY OF THE MALE INHABITANTS OF SUCH STATE, BEING TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE, AND CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES, OR IN ANY WAY ABRIDGED, EXCEPT FOR PARTICIPATION IN REBELLION, OR OTHER CRIME, THE BASIS OF REPRESENTATION THEREIN SHALL BE REDUCED IN THE PROPORTION WHICH THE NUMBER OF SUCH MALE CITIZENS SHALL BEAR TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF MALE CITIZENS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE IN SUCH STATE.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. NO PERSON SHALL BE A SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS, OR ELECTOR OF PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT, OR HOLD ANY OFFICE, CIVIL OR MILITARY, UNDER THE UNITED STATES, OR UNDER ANY STATE, WHO, HAVING PREVIOUSLY TAKEN AN OATH, AS A MEMBER OF CONGRESS, OR AS AN OFFICER OF THE UNITED STATES, OR AS A MEMBER OF ANY STATE LEGISLATURE, OR AS AN EXECUTIVE OR JUDICIAL OFFICER OF ANY STATE, TO SUPPORT THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL HAVE ENGAGED IN INSURRECTION OR REBELLION AGAINST THE SAME, OR GIVEN AID OR COMFORT TO THE ENEMIES THEREOF. BUT CONGRESS MAY BY A VOTE OF TWO-THIRDS OF EACH HOUSE, REMOVE SUCH DISABILITY.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE VALIDITY OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OF THE UNITED STATES, AUTHORIZED BY LAW, INCLUDING DEBTS INCURRED FOR PAYMENT OF PENSIONS AND BOUNTIES FOR SERVICES IN SUPPRESSING INSURRECTION OR REBELLION, SHALL NOT BE QUESTIONED. BUT NEITHER THE UNITED STATES NOR ANY STATE SHALL ASSUME OR PAY ANY DEBT OR OBLIGATION INCURRED IN AID OF INSURRECTION OR REBELLION AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, OR ANY CLAIM FOR THE LOSS OR EMANCIPATION OF ANY SLAVE; BUT ALL SUCH DEBTS, OBLIGATIONS AND CLAIMS SHALL BE HELD ILLEGAL AND VOID.

      5. SECTION 5

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE, BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION, THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ARTICLE.

    25. AMENDMENT XV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF RACE, COLOR, OR PREVIOUS CONDITION OF SERVITUDE.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    26. AMENDMENT XVI

      1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO LAY AND COLLECT TAXES ON INCOMES, FROM WHATEVER SOURCE DERIVED, WITHOUT APPORTIONMENT AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES, AND WITHOUT REGARD TO ANY CENSUS OR ENUMERATION.

    27. AMENDMENT XVII

      1. THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE COMPOSED OF TWO SENATORS FROM EACH STATE, ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE THEREOF, FOR SIX YEARS; AND EACH SENATOR SHALL HAVE ONE VOTE. THE ELECTORS IN EACH STATE SHALL HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUISITE FOR ELECTORS OF THE MOST NUMEROUS BRANCH OF THE STATE LEGISLATURES.

      2. WHEN VACANCIES HAPPEN IN THE REPRESENTATION OF ANY STATE IN THE SENATE, THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY OF SUCH STATE SHALL ISSUE WRITS OF ELECTION TO FILL SUCH VACANCIES: PROVIDED, THAT THE LEGISLATURE OF ANY STATE MAY EMPOWER THE EXECUTIVE THEREOF TO MAKE TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS UNTIL THE PEOPLE FILL THE VACANCIES BY ELECTION AS THE LEGISLATURE MAY DIRECT.

      3. THIS AMENDMENT SHALL NOT BE SO CONSTRUED AS TO AFFECT THE ELECTION OR TERM OF ANY SENATOR CHOSEN BEFORE IT BECOMES VALID AS PART OF THE CONSTITUTION.

    28. AMENDMENT XVIII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. AFTER ONE YEAR FROM THE RATIFICATION OF THIS ARTICLE THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR TRANSPORTATION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS WITHIN, THE IMPORTATION THEREOF INTO, OR THE EXPORTATION THEREOF FROM THE UNITED STATES AND ALL TERRITORY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF FOR BEVERAGE PURPOSES IS HEREBY PROHIBITED.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS AND THE SEVERAL STATES SHALL HAVE CONCURRENT POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION, WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE SUBMISSION HEREOF TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS.

    29. AMENDMENT XIX

      1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF SEX.

      2. CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    30. AMENDMENT XX

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE TERMS OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT SHALL END AT NOON ON THE 20TH DAY OF JANUARY, AND THE TERMS OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES AT NOON ON THE 3D DAY OF JANUARY, OF THE YEARS IN WHICH SUCH TERMS WOULD HAVE ENDED IF THIS ARTICLE HAD NOT BEEN RATIFIED; AND THE TERMS OF THEIR SUCCESSORS SHALL THEN BEGIN.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL ASSEMBLE AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY YEAR, AND SUCH MEETING SHALL BEGIN AT NOON ON THE 3D DAY OF JANUARY, UNLESS THEY SHALL BY LAW APPOINT A DIFFERENT DAY.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. IF, AT THE TIME FIXED FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE TERM OF THE PRESIDENT, THE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL HAVE DIED, THE VICE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL BECOME PRESIDENT. IF A PRESIDENT SHALL NOT HAVE BEEN CHOSEN BEFORE THE TIME FIXED FOR THE BEGINNING OF HIS TERM, OR IF THE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL HAVE FAILED TO QUALIFY, THEN THE VICE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL ACT AS PRESIDENT UNTIL A PRESIDENT SHALL HAVE QUALIFIED; AND THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE FOR THE CASE WHEREIN NEITHER A PRESIDENT ELECT NOR A VICE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL HAVE QUALIFIED, DECLARING WHO SHALL THEN ACT AS PRESIDENT, OR THE MANNER IN WHICH ONE WHO IS TO ACT SHALL BE SELECTED, AND SUCH PERSON SHALL ACT ACCORDINGLY UNTIL A PRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT SHALL HAVE QUALIFIED.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE FOR THE CASE OF THE DEATH OF ANY OF THE PERSONS FROM WHOM THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MAY CHOOSE A PRESIDENT WHENEVER THE RIGHT OF CHOICE SHALL HAVE DEVOLVED UPON THEM, AND FOR THE CASE OF THE DEATH OF ANY OF THE PERSONS FROM WHOM THE SENATE MAY CHOOSE A VICE PRESIDENT WHENEVER THE RIGHT OF CHOICE SHALL HAVE DEVOLVED UPON THEM.

      5. SECTION 5

        1. SECTIONS 1 AND 2 SHALL TAKE EFFECT ON THE 15TH DAY OF OCTOBER FOLLOWING THE RATIFICATION OF THIS ARTICLE.

      6. SECTION 6

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THREE-FOURTHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF ITS SUBMISSION.

    31. AMENDMENT XXI

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE EIGHTEENTH ARTICLE OF AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES IS HEREBY REPEALED.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE TRANSPORTATION OR IMPORTATION INTO ANY STATE, TERRITORY, OR POSSESSION OF THE UNITED STATES FOR DELIVERY OR USE THEREIN OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS, IN VIOLATION OF THE LAWS THEREOF, IS HEREBY PROHIBITED.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY CONVENTIONS IN THE SEVERAL STATES, AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION, WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE SUBMISSION HEREOF TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS.

    32. AMENDMENT XXII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. NO PERSON SHALL BE ELECTED TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT MORE THAN TWICE, AND NO PERSON WHO HAS HELD THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, OR ACTED AS PRESIDENT, FOR MORE THAN TWO YEARS OF A TERM TO WHICH SOME OTHER PERSON WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT SHALL BE ELECTED TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT MORE THAN ONCE. BUT THIS ARTICLE SHALL NOT APPLY TO ANY PERSON HOLDING THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, WHEN THIS ARTICLE WAS PROPOSED BY THE CONGRESS, AND SHALL NOT PREVENT ANY PERSON WHO MAY BE HOLDING THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, OR ACTING AS PRESIDENT, DURING THE TERM WITHIN WHICH THIS ARTICLE BECOMES OPERATIVE FROM HOLDING THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OR ACTING AS PRESIDENT DURING THE REMAINDER OF SUCH TERM.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THREE-FOURTHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF ITS SUBMISSION TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS.

    33. AMENDMENT XXIII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE DISTRICT CONSTITUTING THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL APPOINT IN SUCH MANNER AS THE CONGRESS MAY DIRECT:

        2. A NUMBER OF ELECTORS OF PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT EQUAL TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS TO WHICH THE DISTRICT WOULD BE ENTITLED IF IT WERE A STATE, BUT IN NO EVENT MORE THAN THE LEAST POPULOUS STATE; THEY SHALL BE IN ADDITION TO THOSE APPOINTED BY THE STATES, BUT THEY SHALL BE CONSIDERED, FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE ELECTION OF PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT, TO BE ELECTORS APPOINTED BY A STATE; AND THEY SHALL MEET IN THE DISTRICT AND PERFORM SUCH DUTIES AS PROVIDED BY THE TWELFTH ARTICLE OF AMENDMENT.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    34. AMENDMENT XXIV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE IN ANY PRIMARY OR OTHER ELECTION FOR PRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT FOR ELECTORS FOR PRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT, OR FOR SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS, SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR ANY STATE BY REASON OF FAILURE TO PAY ANY POLL TAX OR OTHER TAX.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    35. AMENDMENT XXV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. IN CASE OF THE REMOVAL OF THE PRESIDENT FROM OFFICE OR OF HIS DEATH OR RESIGNATION, THE VICE PRESIDENT SHALL BECOME PRESIDENT.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. WHENEVER THERE IS A VACANCY IN THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT, THE PRESIDENT SHALL NOMINATE A VICE PRESIDENT WHO SHALL TAKE OFFICE UPON CONFIRMATION BY A MAJORITY VOTE OF BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. WHENEVER THE PRESIDENT TRANSMITS TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HIS WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT HE IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE, AND UNTIL HE TRANSMITS TO THEM A WRITTEN DECLARATION TO THE CONTRARY, SUCH POWERS AND DUTIES SHALL BE DISCHARGED BY THE VICE PRESIDENT AS ACTING PRESIDENT.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. WHENEVER THE VICE PRESIDENT AND A MAJORITY OF EITHER THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OR OF SUCH OTHER BODY AS CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE, TRANSMIT TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES THEIR WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT THE PRESIDENT IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE, THE VICE PRESIDENT SHALL IMMEDIATELY ASSUME THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE OFFICE AS ACTING PRESIDENT.

        2. THEREAFTER, WHEN THE PRESIDENT TRANSMITS TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HIS WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT NO INABILITY EXISTS, HE SHALL RESUME THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE UNLESS THE VICE PRESIDENT AND A MAJORITY OF EITHER THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT OR OF SUCH OTHER BODY AS CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE, TRANSMIT WITHIN FOUR DAYS TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES THEIR WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT THE PRESIDENT IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE. THEREUPON CONGRESS SHALL DECIDE THE ISSUE, ASSEMBLING WITHIN FORTY-EIGHT HOURS FOR THAT PURPOSE IF NOT IN SESSION. IF THE CONGRESS, WITHIN TWENTY-ONE DAYS AFTER RECEIPT OF THE LATTER WRITTEN DECLARATION, OR, IF CONGRESS IS NOT IN SESSION, WITHIN TWENTY-ONE DAYS AFTER CONGRESS IS REQUIRED TO ASSEMBLE, DETERMINES BY TWO-THIRDS VOTE OF BOTH HOUSES THAT THE PRESIDENT IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE, THE VICE PRESIDENT SHALL CONTINUE TO DISCHARGE THE SAME AS ACTING PRESIDENT; OTHERWISE, THE PRESIDENT SHALL RESUME THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE.

    36. AMENDMENT XXVI

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES, WHO ARE EIGHTEEN YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF AGE.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    37. AMENDMENT XXVII

      1. NO LAW VARYING THE COMPENSATION FOR THE SERVICES OF THE SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES SHALL TAKE EFFECT, UNTIL AN ELECTION OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL HAVE INTERVENED.

    38. So what is the Constitution of the United States?

      1. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States. Empowered with the sovereign authority of the people by the framers and the consent of the legislatures of the states, it is the source of all government powers, and also provides important limitations on the government that protect the fundamental rights of United States citizens.

  180. Uruguay 1966 (reinst. 1985, rev. 2004)
  181. Uzbekistan 1992 (rev. 2011)
  182. Vanuatu 1980 (rev. 1983)
  183. Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1999 (rev. 2009)
  184. Viet Nam 1992 (rev. 2013)
  185. Zambia 1991 (rev. 2009)
  186. Zimbabwe 2013…And who’s next?

Alternative Resources for Study of State Constitutions of the World

    1. Constitute was developed by the authors of the Comparative Constitutions Project at the University of Texas at Austin. It was seeded with a grant from Google Ideas, with additional financial support from the Indigo Trust and IC2. Arabic Constitute was developed in partnership with International IDEA, which provided significant intellectual and material support. Semantic data structures were created by the Miranker Lab at the University of Texas using Capsenta‘s Ultrawrap. Site architecture, engineering, and design are provided by Psycle Interactive.
      The following organizations have made important investments in the Comparative Constitutions Project since 2005: the National Science Foundation (SES 0648288, IIS 1018554), the Cline Center for Democracy, the United States Institute of Peace, the University of Texas, the University of Chicago, and the Constitution Unit at University College London.
      Any inquiries should be addressed to constitute.project@gmail.com.

    2. Contact
      John Paul Jones, Professor of Law Emeritus, University of Richmond School of Law

    3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_national_constitutions

Constitutional government

Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution—which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the polity—that effectively controls the exercise of political power. The essence of constitutionalism is the control of power by its distribution among several state organs or offices in such a way that they are each subjected to reciprocal controls and forced to cooperate in formulating the will of the state. Although constitutional government in this sense flourished in England and in some other historical systems for a considerable period, it is only recently that it has been associated with forms of mass participation in politics. In England, for example, constitutional government was not harnessed to political democracy until after the Reform Act of 1832 and subsequent 19th-century extensions of the suffrage. In the contemporary world, however, constitutional governments are also generally democracies, and in most cases they are referred to as constitutional democracies or constitutional-democratic systems.

The contemporary political systems that combine constitutionalism and democracy share a common basis in the primacy they accord to the will of the majority of the people as expressed in free elections. In all such systems, political parties are key institutions, for they are the agencies by which majority opinion in a modern mass electorate is mobilized and expressed. Indeed, the history of the political party in its modern form is coincidental with the development of contemporary constitutional-democratic systems. In each case, the transition from the older forms of constitutionalism to modern constitutional democracy was accompanied by the institutionalization of parties and the development of techniques of party competition. The essential functions of political parties in a constitutional democracy are the integration of a multitude of interests, beliefs, and values into one or more programs or proposals for change and the nomination of party members for elective office in the government. In both functions, the party serves as a link between the rulers and the ruled: in the first case by allowing the electorate to register an opinion on policy and in the second by giving the people a chance to choose their rulers. Of course, the centralized, autocratically directed, and ideologically orthodox one-party systems of totalitarian regimes perform neither of these functions.

The two major types of constitutional democracy in the modern world are exemplified by the United States and Great Britain. The United States is the leading example of the presidential system of constitutional democracy; Britain, although its system is sometimes referred to as a cabinet system in recognition of the role of the cabinet in the government, is the classic example of the parliamentary system. The U.S. presidential system is based on the doctrine of separation of powers and distinguishes sharply between the personnel of the legislature and the executive; the British parliamentary system provides for the integration or fusion of legislature and executive. In the U.S. system the separation of legislature and executive is reinforced by their separate election and by the doctrine of checks and balances that provides constitutional support for routine disagreements between the branches; in the British system the integration of legislature and executive is reinforced by the necessity for their constant agreement, or for a condition of “confidence” between the two, if the normal processes of government are to continue. In the U.S. system reciprocal controls are provided by such devices as the presidential veto of legislation (which may be overridden by a two-thirds majority in Congress), the Senate’s role in ratifying treaties and confirming executive nominations, congressional appropriation of funds and the exclusive ability to declare war, and judicial review of legislation; in the British system the major control device is the vote of “no confidence” or the rejection of legislation that is considered vital.

A third type of constitutional democracy is the hybrid presidential-parliamentary system, exemplified by the government of France. In such systems there is both a directly elected president with substantial executive powers and a presidentially appointed prime minister, who must retain majority support in the legislature. If the president’s party or coalition also controls a legislative majority, the prime minister is generally a secondary figure, responsible for the day-to-day running of the government. However, the office of prime minister becomes more important when one party or coalition controls the presidency and a rival party or coalition retains majority support in the legislature. During such periods the president generally appoints the leader of the legislative majority as prime minister.

Most national societies have passed through a stage in their social and political development, usually referred to as feudalism, in which a weak and ineffectively organized national government competes for territorial jurisdiction with local power holders. In medieval England and France, for example, the crown was perennially threatened by the power of the feudal nobles, and a protracted struggle was necessary before the national domain was subjected to full royal control. Elsewhere, innumerable societies continued to experience this kind of feudal conflict between local magnates and the central government well into the modern era. The warlords of 19th- and 20th-century China, for example, were just as much the products of feudal society as the warring barons of 13th-century England and presented the same kind of challenge to the central government’s claim to exercise sovereign jurisdiction over the national territory. By the 1970s, feudalism was almost extinct. The social patterns that had formerly supported the power of local landowners were rapidly disappearing, and central governments had generally acquired a near monopoly of communications and military technology, enabling them to project their power into areas once controlled by local rulers.

In nearly all national political systems, central governments are better equipped than ever before to exercise effective jurisdiction over their territories. In much of the developing world, nationalist political movements and a variety of modern economic forces have swept away the traditional structures of local government, and the quasi-autonomous governments of village and tribe and province have been replaced by centrally directed systems of subnational administration. Even in the heavily industrialized states of the modern world, there has been an accelerating tendency toward greater centralization of power at the national level. In the United States, for example, the structure of relationships among the governments at the national, state, and local levels has changed in a number of ways to add to the power of the federal government in Washington. Even though the system of national grants-in-aid appears to have been designed as a means of decentralizing administration, the effect has been decidedly centralist, for the conditional character of the grants has allowed the federal government to exercise influence on state policies in fields that were once invulnerable to national intervention

Toward a Constitution Of Earth

  1. What Should World Governance Look Like?

    1. There is no right answer to this question yet, because there is no model to follow.
    2. Increasingly, global problems exceed the grasp of national governance.
    3. The following essay we thought a good start at thinking it through.
    4. Feel free to add to the work others have done so far below.
    5. The essay:
  1. So What Should World Governance Look Like?

    1. Life on Earth is far from perfect, and we have many issues that need tackling before we can claim to be putting care for life over care for profit. Framing these everyday circumstances against a much bigger picture, some have posed the concern that the galaxy will succumb to capitalism.
    2. ANASTASIA ROMANOU, A CLIMATE RESEARCH SCIENTIST FOR COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND NASA’S GODDARD INSTITUTE FOR SPACE STUDIES, PRESENTED THE IDEA — THAT THE DESIRE TO EXPLORE EXOPLANETS AND MINE ASTEROIDS IS THE DIRECT RESULT OF THE NEED TO NOURISH CAPITALISM — RECENTLY AT THE LEFT FORUM CONFERENCE IN MANHATTAN:
      1. [EXOPLANET EXPLORATION] HAS BEEN MASKED AS A SCIENTIFIC INTEREST, A HUMAN INTEREST, AND HUMAN CURIOSITY TO EXPLORE DIFFERENT WORLDS. LATE ERA CAPITALISM IS FEELING THE PRESSURE FROM RESOURCE SCARCITY, AND THEREFORE, IT HAS TO FIND ITS OWN WAY OUT. IT CANNOT THINK OUTSIDE ITS OWN BOX OF SOLUTIONS, AND IT WILL HAVE TO FIND ANOTHER PLACE, AND ANOTHER PLACE, AND ANOTHER PLACE TO EXPLOIT.
      2. ACCORDING TO ROMANOU, AS A RESULT OF OUR DESIRE TO GROW CAPITALISM, EXOPLANETS WILL BE MINED FOR MINERALS AND DRILLED FOR OIL, JUST LIKE OUR PLANET WAS.
    3. THE IDEA OF “LATE CAPITALISM” INVOLVES CAPITALIST ECONOMY, AS WE KNOW IT, COMING TO AN END. ITS FINAL DAYS WILL BE MARKED BY RESOURCE SHORTAGES AND WEAKENED MANUFACTURING PRACTICES.
    4. KAI KASCHINSKI, A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE FAIR OCEANS ORGANIZATION, GAVE ADDITIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE SUBJECT, RELATING THE FUTURE FATE OF EXOPLANETS AND ASTEROIDS TO THAT OF OUR OCEANS, CURRENTLY BEING INDEPENDENTLY ACQUIRED FOR MINING BY RESOURCE EXTRACTION COMPANIES. HE EVEN NOTED THAT THE 2015 U.S. COMMERCIAL SPACE LAUNCH COMPETITIVENESS ACT, WHICH PERMITS UNITED STATES CITIZENS (AMERICAN COMPANIES) TO MINE CELESTIAL BODIES LIKE ASTEROIDS FOR VALUABLE MINERALS, MIGHT ACTUALLY VIOLATE THE Outer Space Treaty of 1967, BECAUSE THE TREATY DIDN’T SPECIFY WHO WAS ALLOWED TO MINE ASTEROIDS.
      1. KASCHINSKI SAID:
        1. The argument of the government was that there is an international law of the sea, which makes it possible to dig in international ocean bottoms. So the government adopted the opinion that if you can dig in this area of common heritage of mankind, you can also dig around in the common heritage of mankind elsewhere in space.
    5. ASTEROID MINING REMAINS JUST AN IDEA FOR THE MOMENT. DESPITE OBVIOUS ENGINEERING AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN PLAY, HOWEVER, TECHNOLOGY IS UNDERWAY TO MAKE IT A REALITY.
      1. For instance, Planetary Resources hopes to get telescopes to analyze asteroids before craft are sent to mine them. The company has some promising backers, and believes it could be operating in space by 2025. Deep Space Industries will survey a near-Earth asteroid for water that it could have spacecraft mine for use as propulsion steam, with the stated goal of unlimited economic expansion. Advances in 3-D printing, even in zero gravity, and AI seem to point toward the possibility of self-sustained unmanned machines, named for John von Neumann, to self-replicate and robotically explore and exploit vast areas of nearby galactic neighborhood.
      2. Meanwhile, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has over 2,000 exoplanet discoveries under its belt, 21 of which lie in a “habitable zone.”
      3. Life on other planets was once merely for the movies, but with the reality looming near, concerns over whether we will export dangerous behaviors and algorithms to exoplanets should be addressed sooner rather than later.
  2. Goodbye representative democracy & capitalism – it was fun

    1. THIS IS AN ATTEMPT TO LOOK AT CURRENT GLOBAL PROBLEMS FROM A PERSPECTIVE DIGGING DEEPER INTO THE ROOT OF THE SYSTEM. FOR AS EINSTEIN SAID, “A PROBLEM CANNOT BE SOLVED FROM THE SAME LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS AS CREATED IT.” IT IS ALSO AN ATTEMPT AT PHRASING IT SO THAT IT BUILDS THE BETTER ARGUMENTS TO CHALLENGE THE CONVENTIONS AND OFFER ALTERNATIVES THAT SHIFT THE PARADIGM. DISCLAIMER: IT WILL NOT BE PERFECT. YOU WILL DISAGREE AT TIMES, AND MAY FIND IMPERFECT ARGUMENTS AND/OR REASONING. I ASK YOU TO HELP US IMPROVE OR BUILD YOUR OWN NEW IDEAS ASIDE, ON TOP, OR UNDERNEATH IT. STORIES THAT LIBERATE US FROM CURRENT STUCK PARADIGMS ARE DESPERATELY NEEDED AND HOPEFUL ALTERNATIVES OFFERED. WORLDWIDE MANY ALREADY ARE JOINING THE CREATIVES. MANY THINGS ARE IMPROVING. THERE IS HOPE! YET, SOMEHOW WHAT MAKES SENSE FOR US, DOESN’T YET MAKE SENSE FOR THE MAJORITY. MOST HAVE YET TO BEGIN TO SEE OR ACCEPT THAT HUMANITY IS MOORED IN A DAMAGING SYSTEM. THIS PIECE WAS ORIGINALLY CONTRIBUTED BY FLORIS KOOT AND WAS ORIGINALLY POSTED ON MEDIUM. IT WAS REPOSTED WITH PERMISSION UNDER CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE.
    2. Currently The Biggest Problems on Our Planet

      1. Destruction of Natural Capacity
        1. We ravage our ecological systems to the point of degradation for the profits of parties who’ll do anything to keep their profits rising. Yeah, corporations consciously deliver stuff of which 85% is refuse in the making. It is produced to be outdated, break, or out of fashion soon. And despite the waste we buy it and ask for more.
      2. Poisoning of seas and systems
        1. So who is really busy preventing plastic from entering our oceans, soon to be present at nano-level in all our food? Who limits the amount of oestrogens (estrogens in America) from rising in our systems, damaging fertility of men? Who stops the rising amounts of waste that leak to endanger humans and nature? Have you heard governments crying out loud? We cannot let it be only a tragedy of the commons in our future.
      3. Widening gap between poor and rich
        1. The poor either turn to crime, ravaging what few resources still available or turn aggressive to those believed to be competitors. The answer can’t be harsher laws or corporate owned prisons. And the promise of more jobs when you vote the right person isn’t really addressing the core of the issue.
      4. Wars instigated by elites that only benefit a few (themselves)
        1. For instance Syria entered its disastrous civil war in part to decide whether a gas pipeline would benefit the Russian Elite or the Western Elite. Who will get the right to sell us stuff (gas in this case) for what price? Why don’t we better restrain our own side from entering wars than succumbing to fear of the other?
      5. Divisions to conquer
        1. The playing out of differences between populations, through means of religion, nationality, race, gender, etc. is endemic. ‘Leaders’ love this. Anyone with (imposed) fears, low self-esteem, endangered jobs, who has learned racial bias or rigid beliefs readily follows their leader. Disagreement could mark one as outcast or traitor.
      6.     Anomie, a rise of depression and disconnectedness from life and meaning
        1. Most work is organized around process and efficiency, rather than around meaning, diversification, healthiness for natural systems, being of real service to real needs, rather than boosting sales for profit. But we want the security of a career, so we don’t have time to challenge this idea. We’d rather secretly feel the pain of disconnection. For-profit careers which rationally coerce damage to people, places and planet often return large bonuses to those who conduct them.
      7.     The dangers of a financial system collapse
        1. Isn’t it scary and totally ridiculous that when a financial system collapses millions will go poor and probably hungry, while there is plenty enough food, manpower and means to provide for everyone? That indicates the whole system is built on wrong assumptions and rules…which force all the people to play along in hopes of preventing banks from failing. Hmm.
      8. Limits to Adaptation
        1. Perhaps the biggest problem of the future, and in some senses it is already with us, is our adaptive limit. These limits to adaptability occur on both ends of the spectrum from under-adaption to inadaptability.
          1. We too little adapt while it is possible. Rather than change our own ways big corporations will sell us complex medications to treat our symptoms. We’ll be an overweight smoking junk food eater who buys expensive medicines, but does not change behavior. And the side effects of the medications will employ additional medicines. But hey, if you sell medicine, true healing means no sales, right? Thus the assumptions beneath our whole profit-based health outlook remains sick as well.
          2. We eventually run up against our inability to adapt and adaptation becomes impossible. Rather than be proactive to plan and implement adaptations that are doable without disruption, we wait until problems become immense, complicated and critical only to find that our capacity to adapt is then no longer sufficient.
          3. We may find that problems grow so large and knotty that we physically cannot cope, and these cause deaths of individuals, reduction of biodiversity and species extinctions.
      9. Solving the Problems of Healthy Governance

        1. DO YOU RECOGNIZE THESE PROBLEMS AND HOW HARD THEY SEEM TO SOLVE OR EVEN ADDRESS? ARE ENOUGH PEOPLE EMPLOYED TO WORK ON THEM? WE HAVE TO CONSIDER THAT MOST PEOPLE ON OUR PLANET INDEED WANT PEACE, A HOPEFUL FUTURE FOR CHILDREN AND A WARM FAMILY AND COMMUNITY LIFE. NO DOUBT WE CARE ABOUT HEALTHY GOVERNANCE. BUT OF COURSE IT IS SCARY CHALLENGING THEN CHANGING THE WAY THAT THINGS ARE, BECAUSE NO ONE KNOWS WHAT WE MIGHT END UP WITH IN RETURN.
        2. FOR A SECURE FUTURE THIS MUCH IS CLEAR: BEING CONNECTED TO NATURE IS ESSENTIAL. HAVING ENOUGH THAT IS NATURAL, LIVING BLOOMING SYSTEMS FLOURISHING AROUND US, IS KEY TO FEELING PEACEFUL, BUILDING TRUST WITH OTHERS AND KNOWING WE ARE AN IMPORTANT PART OF A LIVING ECOSYSTEM. WE ARE NATURE. SO HOW SHALL WE SUPPORT OUR ROLES WITHIN AND TOWARD NATURE AND THAT HOLISTIC SYSTEM CALLED MOTHER EARTH? HOW CAN WE SHIFT TO PROVIDE FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS OF HUMANS AND ALL OTHER LIVING THINGS?
      10. Our Old Solutions Don’t Work

        1. MONARCHY
          1. We’ve tried kingdoms. Didn’t work. Great kings and queens inspired their people with ideals (symbols of national power, etc.). The children of great kings can become awful. And one ruler taking all decisions is already a bad idea.
        2. COMMUNALITY
          1. We’ve tried statewide communism. Isn’t it great to be liberated from a self-serving elite…only to be replaced by statist elite? It didn’t work, because top-down economic planning could not handle the complexity of human society and no one wants to be just the same as everyone else. And the future is inherently unstable, incapable of conforming to any brittle plan. 5-year top-down plans made millions suffer. And the distribution of needed goods sucked.
        3. MONOPOLY
          1. We are still trying capitalism. The distribution has been great. As has been the marketing claiming that it’s all simply great. Yet it isn’t. It doesn’t work, because everybody fending for themselves inevitably damages the system as a whole. The promise that competition will improve products and service for everyone has not born out. We can’t trust our food and we can’t trust our medicines anymore, as corporate profits seem more important than the consequences for people, nature and the planet. And the corporate lobbies turning governments into their personal champions threatens an even more ravaged planet under an expanding superrich elite. The danger of fascist Corporate Plutocracy is real, and might have already begun in some places while the trappings of democratic elections continue.
        4. DEMOCRACY
          1. We are still trying out representative democracy. Oh, the nice promises. Yet what we have is the choice between a few preselected candidates of an elite. Also democracy doesn’t work when people vote for their personal shopping basket while ‘leaders’ seek to divide and conquer (by promising particular sectarian dreams, rather than uniting and caring for the people as a whole). And most leaders serve the hands that feed them. Today these are mostly huge corporations and other extremely wealthy patrons. Have you seen any democratic government really solving any of the world’s problems as listed above? By only blaming ‘them’ while coveting votes to strengthen a sectarian agenda, real issues fester and our problems grow.
      11. The Root of the Problem

        1. WHAT IS CLEAR IS THAT A SMALL MINORITY OF HUMANS ARE WILLING TO LIE, CHEAT, AND MANIPULATE ALL OTHERS FOR POWER AND RICHES. MANY PEOPLE ARE CAUGHT IN DAMAGING PARADIGMS THAT RESULT OF THIS. THEY TOO WILL SUPPORT THE MANIPULATIVE ONES. THEY ENDORSE FALSE DICHOTOMIES LIKE: ‘IT’S EITHER US OR THEM’. ‘MY BELIEF IS SO MUCH MORE WORTHY THAN YOURS, SO YOUR VOICE MAY BE SILENCED IF YOU THREATEN MY POSITION (OR EVEN JUST SPEAK OUT)’. IDEAS OFTEN REHASHED AS ‘MAKE ME RICH OR MORE POWERFUL, AND YOU’LL BENEFIT FROM IT’ OR ‘LET US RAISE OUR PROFITS AND IT WILL PROVE TO ENRICH EVERYONE’ OR ‘BUY THIS THING OR IDEA AND BECOME HAPPY/SAFE/RICH/POWERFUL.’ AND SINCE THESE IDEAS CURRENTLY PROVIDE THE BEST JOBS, IN GREAT CITIES’ OFFICE TOWERS WITH AMAZING VIEWS, WE’LL BE SECURELY LOCKED UP IN THOSE KINDS OF FALSE RATIONALES UNTIL SHIT HITS THE FANS AGAIN LIKE IT DID IN BANKS IN 2008.
        2. BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE ARE WILLING, COLLABORATIVE, POSITIVE, KIND PEOPLE, THEY ASSUME WHAT OTHERS PROMISE THEM IS TO BE TRUSTED. WE SLOWLY SEE THAT NOT ALL PROMISES ARE IN OUR INTEREST TO BELIEVE. FROM CORPORATE COMMERCIALS TO RELIGIOUS DOGMAS TO POLITICAL ADVERTISERS WE ARE BEING SOLD DREAMS OR FEARS, IN RETURN FOR MONEY, TRANSFER OF POWER AND LOSS OF SAFETY (BOTH OUR MARTIAL SECURITY AND IN QUALITY OF FOOD AND HEALTHCARE). BE SUSPICIOUS EVEN OF NGO’S. WHAT? YES, THEY GET FUNDED TO HEAL SYMPTOMATIC EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM, BUT NEVER REALLY CHANGE THE ROOT OF THE TROUBLE. GREENPEACE PROTESTS POLLUTION, UNICEF HELPS CHILDREN. NEITHER SOLVES THE UNCHECKED GREED THAT INSISTS ON POLLUTION OR CHILD LABOUR.
        3. OUR ‘LEADERS’ MADE IT NORMAL TO FRAME SUCCESS AS YOUR CAPABILITY TO JOIN THEIR RANKS AND PARADIGMS. FAILING TO DO SO OR DROPPING OUT MARKS YOU AS A LOSER. EVERYTHING IS ECONOMIZED, WHICH MEANS IF YOU DON’T INCREASE PROFIT TO THE SYSTEM, IF YOU’RE OLD, SICK OR UNEMPLOYED, YOU ARE BALLAST, DEAD-WEIGHT UPON SOCIETY. AS IF THE MILLIONS OF NON-PROFIT HUMANS, LIKE MOTHERS, VOLUNTEERS AND ACTIVISTS, TAKING CARE OF ELDERLY, SICK, REFUGEES AND NATURE ARE NOTHING BUT BALLAST!? AS IF THE SERVICES OF A TREE STANDING IN A FOREST HAVE NO VALUE TO THE WHOLE OF NATURE! WE SEEM NOT TO UNDERSTAND HOW THAT TREE ENRICHES ITS ECOSYSTEM. POWERFUL PEOPLE ACT AS IF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE WERE BARBARIANS, WHILE IT’S WE IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY RAVAGING THE PLANET WHO ARE BARBAROUS. IT’S WE WHO DEFEND ‘OUR WAY OF LIFE’ WHO ARE CRUELLY DENYING OTHERS THEIRS.
        4. WORSE, MANY PEOPLE LIMIT THEIR THINKING TO THE STAINED BOX OF THESE PARADIGMS. MOST AMERICANS ARE STUCK BETWEEN CHOOSING ONE BAD CANDIDATE TO PREVENT THE OTHER BAD CANDIDATE FROM WINNING, AS IF THERE CAN BE NO OTHER OPTIONS. WE VOTE DENYING THAT THE SYSTEM OF DEMOCRATIC REPRESENTATION IS BROKEN, WHILE WE PLACE ALL THE BLAME ONE OR BOTH CANDIDATES.
        5. CHANGING LEADERS WILL CHANGE LITTLE. WHEN WE DETHRONE CROOKS, LEADERS WHO SUPPORT WORLD-DAMAGING PARADIGMS, LIKE-MINDED SOCIOPATHS TEND TO PUSH FORWARD AND NOTHING REALLY CHANGES. SO DON’T EXPECT YOUR NEXT PRESIDENT TO PROVIDE YOU THE SOLUTION.
      12. A Transcendent Paradigm Needed

        1. THE ONE BIG SHIFT NEEDED IS TO TRANSCEND SUCH LIMITING ‘US VS THEM’ BELIEFS, INCLUDING, HAHAHA, THE ONE JUST MENTIONED ABOUT ‘THOSE LEADERS’. YES, BECAUSE MANY LEADERS AND THEIR CRONIES, EH, SORRY, DEPUTIES, REALLY WORRY TOO. THEY’RE HUMAN. SADLY, SINCE THEY SEEK SOLUTIONS WITHIN THE EXISTING SYSTEMS OR THAT ENHANCE EXISTING POWERS, THEIR ATTEMPTS ARE DOOMED TO FAIL. TRIBAL WE STILL REMAIN. WHISTLEBLOWERS, AND PEOPLE STEPPING OUT OF LINE ARE SEEN AS TRAITORS INSTEAD OF PEOPLE WHO SEE THE BIGGER PICTURE AND ADVOCATE HIGHER VALUES THAN BOTTOM LINE SHORT TERM ORGANIZATIONAL INTERESTS.
        2. THE CORPORATIZED MEDIA AREN’T HELPING EITHER. THEY ADVERTISE AND SELL CONSUMERISM AND APPARENT SUCCESS STORIES WITHIN THE CURRENT PARADIGM. THEY DON’T INFORM ON REAL NEEDS, REAL ISSUES THAT WOULD CHALLENGE THE INTERESTS OF THEIR ADVERTISERS, BIGGER THINKING HAPPENING ACROSS THE GLOBE. BIG MEDIA HARDLY RECOGNIZE THE RISE EVERY DAY OF CHANGE MAKERS LIKE THE READERS OF THIS POST. YES, A STUNNING NUMBER OF PEOPLE AROUND THE GLOBE WORK AS BEST THEY CAN TOWARD IMPROVEMENT OF THE WHOLE. PEOPLE INVENTING AND IMPLEMENTING SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTH CARE, AGRICULTURE, PERMACULTURE, TRANSITION TOWNS, PEACE, EQUAL RIGHTS, ENDING SLAVERY, ENDING TORTURE, ENDING POVERTY IS STAGGERING. SURELY WE CAN SEE EACH OTHER BETTER, ENCOURAGE EACH OTHER MORE, AND COORDINATE BETTER! FOR MANY YEARS WE’VE WATCHED THE DAYTONA-500. NOW WHERE ARE THE CHANGE-500? THE HOPEFUL-500? THE SOLUTION-500?
        3. TOO READILY WE EDUCATE OUR YOUTH TO BE PART OF THE PROBLEM!! SHELLY OSTROFF MADE AN ESSENTIAL STATEMENT: “WHEN CHILDREN ARE FORCED TO SIT STILL AT THEIR DESKS IN CROWDED CLASSROOMS THEY BECOME DISCONNECTED FROM THEIR BODIES, NATURE AND LIFE. THEY ARE NOT GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP THEIR INSTINCTS, INTUITION, OR CRITICAL THINKING. THEY ARE NOT EDUCATED TO BECOME CREATIVE AND CARING PROBLEM SOLVERS WILLING TO CONTRIBUTE TO THEIR LARGER ENVIRONMENT.”
      13. What May Be the Deeper Root

        1. (SKIP THIS SECTION IF YOU WANT THE SOLUTIONS NOW! THIS DEEPER ROOT SECTION FORMS AN UNTESTED HYPOTHESIS)
        2. FOR CENTURIES MANKIND WALKED THE EARTH IN SMALL GROUPS. THESE SMALL GROUPS SUFFERED AND ENJOYED NATURE TO ITS FULLEST POWERS, AND MANKIND DEVELOPED THEIR BRAINS TO FIND SOLUTIONS. DIVERSITY WITHIN TRIBES ALSO GREW. HEALERS, LEADERS, CARETAKERS, MENTORS, MAKERS AROSE. BIOLOGY ALSO ADDED PSYCHOPATHIC TENDENCIES IN ABOUT 6% (REFERENCE?) OF THE POPULATION. IN SMALL ENOUGH GROUPS THE MAJORITY CAN ACCOMMODATE SUCH A PERSON. AND SUCH ARE HANDY WHEN KILLING, OR HORRIBLE LOOKING WOUNDS REQUIRE ATTENTION. ALMOST EVERY GROUP OF ABOUT 25 PEOPLE WOULD HAVE HAD ONE OR TWO OF THESE, PROBABLY OF DIFFERENT GENERATIONS.
        3. FOR MANY INDIGENOUS PEOPLES WE SEE THAT SOLVING CHALLENGES WITHOUT CONTROLLING NATURE IS QUITE POSSIBLE. YET SOME TRIBES SOUGHT CONTROL AND DOMINATION OVER NATURE AND OTHERS. THIS ‘SOLUTION’ WAS ADOPTED BY MANY TRIBES TO MAINTAIN PARITY. POPULATIONS GREW. AND WHILE OUR BIOLOGY AND DEEPEST SOCIAL CONDITIONING REMAINED FOR LIFE IN SMALL GROUPS, TRIBES BECAME EMPIRES. WITH SOCIETAL ORGANIZATION, DIVERSITY AND DIFFERENTIAL SORTING GROUPS OF PSYCHOPATHIC INDIVIDUALS BEGAN TO WORK TOGETHER. THEY COULD AND WOULD PLAN TAKEOVERS. THEY COULD AND WOULD PLAN MANIPULATION TO GAIN CONTROL WITH COORDINATED SCHEMING. HENCE THE BIRTH OF ELITES AND MANIPULATIVE RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS.
        4. BE AWARE, MANY SOCIOPATHS ARE WELL ADJUSTED CITIZENS, LIKE SURGEONS AND SOLDIERS, ABLE TO CUT INTO YOUR BODY WITHOUT FREAKING OUT. OR PILOTS WHO CAN STAY CALM WHEN EVERYTHING SEEMS LOST. BE HAPPY THEY ARE WITH US TOO. YET IN BOARD ROOMS OR AS LEADERS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE ANXIOUS, SELF SERVING SOCIOPATHS ARE COMPLETELY THE WRONG LEADERS. AND OUR WHOLE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM KEEPS TEACHING US TO BE LIKE THEM TO SUCCEED. WE HAVE BEEN TAUGHT MISTAKENLY THAT DECISIVENESS IS BETTER THAN DELIBERATION. WHAT WE REALLY NEED IS CONSIDERATE, CARING, WORLD-SEEING AND WORLD-SERVING DOUBTERS, WHO THINK RIGOROUSLY ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR DECISIONS. PEOPLE THAT WILL CONSIDER THE WHOLE SYSTEM, RATHER THAN ANY SUBSET OF THE GREAT ‘US’ OF EARTH.
      14. So Where Do We Go From Here (Chaos or Community?)

        1. WE HAVE TO EXPLORE HOW TO INCLUDE ALL VOICES, ENRICH THE DIVERSITY (LET NATURE AND POOR POPULATIONS FLOURISH) AND HOW OUR ENDEAVORS CAN HELP THE WHOLE WEB OF LIFE GROW RICHER. WHAT SYSTEM WILL LET EVERYBODY AND EVERYTHING WIN? WHAT SYSTEM WILL PROVIDE ENOUGH FOR EVERYONE ON THE PLANET? CERTAINLY THERE IS PROOF ENOUGH THAT WE’VE ENOUGH FOR ALL.
        2. THE BEAUTIFUL THING IS THAT LIFE ITSELF SHOWS US THE WAY. OUR BODIES ARE A SUPER RICH COLLABORATION OF PARTS. NATURE IS THE MOST DELICATE NETWORK OF TEEMING DIVERSITY. NATURE DOESN’T USUALLY HAVE CANCER, WHERE SOME THINGS GROW UNCHECKED, WITHOUT RESTRAINT. HUMAN CIVILIZATION EXHIBITS THESE, FROM CANCERS IN OUR BODIES, TO HUGE CORPORATIONS THAT AFFECT THE PLANET AS A WHOLE BY GOBBLING UP NATURAL RESERVES AND FREELY DUMPING WASTES. WE NEED SYSTEMS THAT FORM NATURAL MEDICINE, AND NOT MORE OF THE SAME BROKEN AND BREAKING SYSTEMS.
        3. SO HOW DOES NATURE REALLY WORK? DARWIN’S SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST CONCEPT HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE REPRODUCTION OF THE BEST ADAPTED. THOSE UNILATERALLY TURNING THE WORLD TO THEIR WISHES MIGHT BE THE LEAST ADAPTABLE, AS THEY DON’T ACCEPT THEIR PLACE WITHIN THE DELICATE INTERDEPENDENCIES SCIENCE MAY REVEAL TO THEM. THE MAJESTY OF THE CONCRETE JUNGLE IS DANGEROUSLY INCAPABLE OF PROVIDING FOOD IN TIMES OF NEED AND IT CONTRIBUTES VAST AMOUNTS OF GREENHOUSE GASES AND OTHER ENHANCERS OF GLOBAL WARMING. ACCEPTANCE, ADAPTATION, AND REINTEGRATION OF THE NATURAL WORLD INTO OUR CITIES, AGRICULTURE THAT ENRICHES THE SOIL RATHER THAN DEPLETES IT AND, DARE WE SAY, LOVE, CARE AND COMPASSION FOR ALL THE LIVING AND NON-LIVING COULD BECOME PART OF OUR NEW PARADIGM. THOSE WHO HAVE POKED AROUND A BIT LONGER MIGHT REPHRASE IT A VERY OLD PARADIGM REDISCOVERED.
      15. All That is Old, May Become New

        1. THE ELIMINATION OF THE CONCEPT OF WASTE, TO BE REPLACED BY THE CONCEPT OF NUTRIENT, WAS INTRODUCED IN THE BRILLIANT 2002 McDONOUGH & BRAUNGART BOOK, CRADLE TO CRADLE.

    “Why not challenge the notion that human industry must inevitably damage the natural world?
    In fact, why not take nature itself as our model? A tree produces thousands of blossoms in order to create another tree, yet we do not consider its abundance wasteful but safe, beautiful, and highly effective; hence, “waste equals food” is the first principle the book sets forth. Products might be designed so that, after their useful life, they provide nourishment for something new-either as “biological nutrients” that safely re-enter the environment or as “technical nutrients” that circulate within closed-loop industrial cycles, without being “downcycled” into low-grade uses (as most “recyclables” now are). William McDonough and Michael Braungart make an exciting and viable case for change.”https://www.amazon.com/Cradle-Remaking-Way-Make-Things/dp/0865475873

  1. The New System
    1. Under Construction
      1. YES, IT’S STILL IN THE MAKING.
      2. MANY VOICES AROUND THE WORLD TALK ABOUT THIS.
    2. Many Parts to a Solution
      1. Applied systems science
        1. SCIENCE HAS TO EMBRACE THE NEW REALITIES IT IS DISCOVERING. IF EVERYTHING IS INTRICATELY CONNECTED IN A DELICATE SYSTEM, THEN SCIENCE CAN’T CONTINUE BEING OF SERVICE TO BIG CORPORATIONS, CREATING LUMP SOLUTIONS TO DRIVE PROFIT. TRUE SCIENCE SHOULD BE: HOW IS IT ALL HANGING TOGETHER? AND MORE IMPORTANTLY: WHAT IMPACT WOULD THIS ‘SOLUTION’ HAVE FOR THE WHOLE SYSTEM OF LIFE ON THIS PLANET?
      2. Holistic, webby and ecosystemic
        1. JUST BRINGING NEW PRODUCTS TO THE MARKET FOR FAST PROFITS HAS TO LOSE OUT TO MAKING CHOICES THAT HELP HEAL, IMPROVE THE WHOLE WEB TO FLOURISH. BETTER SAWS TO CUT TREES, AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS, GMO’S AND CHEAPER PLASTICS WOULD GET WAY MORE SCRUTINY BEFORE EVEN SLIGHTLY CONSIDERED. WE’D SEE THAT SUCH IDEAS ARE NOT SCIENCE AT ALL. THE QUESTION OF WHAT GAIN WILL WE GET FROM THIS, MIGHT SOONER MEAN CHARLATANIC RAPE, RAVAGING AND MURDER OF OUR NATURAL WORLD AND WOULD NOT BE SEEN AS SCIENCE (THE ACCEPTANCE AND DISCOVERY OF REALITY AS IT IS) AT ALL. BECAUSE IT EXCLUDES AND TRAMPLES REALITY AS WE NOW UNDERSTAND IT.
      3. Actively diversify
        1. BRING IN A BIGGER DIVERSITY OF VOICES BRINGING IN WISDOM AND MORE PERSPECTIVE BEFORE ESSENTIAL CHOICES ARE MADE. NO ONE WITH ELDERLY, CHILDREN, PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS, AND COLOURS PRESENT WILL AS EASILY MAKE UNJUST LAWS. HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN WILL CRY AND PROTEST IF FORESTS ARE CUT OR OTHER CHILDREN BOMBED. AND KICK SELF SERVING PSYCHOPATHS OUT, HOWEVER GREAT THEIR STORY SOUNDS OR HOW THEY MAY THREATEN YOU. THAT’S WHAT THEY’RE GOOD AT.
      4. Seek old wisdom
        1. LEARN VALUES FROM INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS WITH NATURE. LEARN FROM THE ZAPATISTAS AND TRIBAL AFRICANS HOW TO SPREAD LEADERSHIP AROUND, HOW TO GROW LOCAL RESILIENCE. LEARN FROM GRASSROOTS MOVEMENTS HOW TO GO REALLY GREEN IN A WAY THAT CAN SUSTAIN EVERYONE. ACCEPT THAT CARE FOR THE WHOLE OUTRANKS ANY CORPORATE ECONOMICAL INTEREST…BY FAR.
      5. Don’t be afraid to cut deep
        1. DARE TO FIRE THAT CEO THAT DAMAGES THE PLANET. DARE TO STOP HUGE CORPORATIONS THAT HARM PERSONS, PLACES OR PLANETS. DARE TO CRIMINALIZE DESTRUCTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES. INCLUDE ALL EXTERIOR COSTS OF COMPANIES BACK INTO THEM, SO WE PAY REAL PRICES. STOP FUNDING AND SUBSIDIZING POWERS THAT BE, FOR EVERYTHING HEALTHIER, GREENER, MORE PROMISING FOR THE WHOLE. AND STOP ANYONE FROM BEING ABLE TO DECIDING THEIR OWN SALARY OR BONUS. CUSTOMERS SHOULD DECIDE, TO START WITH, AND THEN THE WORKERS AT THE BOTTOM SHOULD DECIDE WHAT IS FAIR ABOVE.
      6. Teach the children
        1. TEACH EVERY CHILD MORE BODY AWARENESS, MORE CRITICAL THINKING, AND MORE ECO AWARENESS. SUPPORT EVERY CHILD THAT CHALLENGES SCHOOL AND OR CURRENT PARADIGMS TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES. STRENGTHEN IDEALS AND VALUES OF YOUNG PEOPLE SO THEY DON’T LOSE IDEALISM, RATHER EXPAND IT WITH KNOWLEDGE WHILE GROWING UP. ARM THEM AGAINST BRAINWASH AND MANIPULATIVE SALES.
      7. End slavery and poverty
        1. END THE DEBTORS LIFESTYLE. END HOMELESSNESS NEAR EMPTY STRUCTURES (WHO EVER ACCEPTED THIS IDEA, HOUSING ROTTING AWAY, WITH PEOPLE ON THE STREETS LIVING IN DEJECTION?). PEOPLE GIVEN A CHOICE WILL NOT REMAIN IN MEANINGLESS JOBS OR UNHEALTHY CONDITIONS. UNDER A BASIC OR GENERAL INCOME ALL WORK WOULD BECOME MEANINGFUL, PLEASURABLE AND VOLITIONAL. THIS WOULD CHANGE THE FACE OF HUMAN SOCIETY. ENLIST THE BEST PRACTICES OF GOVERNMENT TO ACCELERATE ASCENT FROM POVERTY TO CLEAN AND ABUNDANT LIVING FOR EVERYONE.
      8. Safe Cities, Green Cities, Developing Cities, Just Cities
        1. SAFETY FOR AND FROM PEOPLE, SECURITY FOR AND FROM THINGS ARE A KEY AIM OF SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PRACTICE.
        2. MAKE CITIES GREEN TO HELP THEM APPROACH GREATER SUSTENANCE. FRANCE RECENTLY MADE IT LAW TO USE EVERY FLAT SOUND ROOF FOR EITHER GROWING PLANTS OR SPORTING SOLAR PANELS. IT’S A GOOD IDEA. MORE GREEN IN CITIES WILL CLEAN THE AIR, PROVIDE MORE FOOD, REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING, AND BRING BACK BEES AND BUTTERFLIES. THERE IS NO REASON NOT TO DO THIS, EXCEPT FOR THE INCREASED CARE THAT ROOFSIDE GARDENS AND POWER PLANTS MAY REQUIRE. YET IF HALF OF OUR OLD JOBS ARE TAKEN UP BY ROBOTS THEN HEY WHY NOT WORK WITH NATURE AND NOT AGAINST IT? WE ARE NATURE. LET’S EMBRACE IT. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION HAS BECOME A TENANT OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT.
        3. DEVELOPMENT MUST OCCUR WITHOUT EXPANSION OF ENERGY USE UNTIL AN OVER-ABUNDANT CLEAN SUPPLY EXISTS. HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ARE PRIMARY ANYWAY. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEED NOT ALWAYS IMPLY SPRAWLING GROWTH. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT NEEDS TO TRANSFORM TO MEET CRADLE-TO-CRADLE MATERIAL AND DESIGN IDEALS AND FULLER NATURAL INTEGRATION. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT TO MAXIMIZE LIVING QUALITY BUT MINIMIZE SPATIAL EXPANSION IS A KEY AIM OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING.
        4. GROWING JUSTICE MOVEMENTS NEED TO INTERTWINE, EACH TO LIFT UP THE OTHER. ENCOURAGINGLY THE FIRST SIGNS OF THIS HAS JUST BEGUN IN THE UNITED STATES AROUND 2017. SOCIAL JUSTICE IS AN UNAMBIGUOUS AIM OF SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PRACTICE.
      9. Redefine and internalize the rewards of all forms of capital deployment, labor provision and land lease.
        1. INTERNALLY PRICE CARBON. DEVELOP ECONOMICAL SYSTEMS THAT DON’T STOP PEOPLE FROM WORKING ON ESSENTIAL THINGS WHENEVER PARTS OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE BREAK DOWN, SUCH AS FINANCIAL SYSTEM, TRANSPORTATION LINE OR ELECTRICAL GRID. IN THE NETHERLANDS THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WORK EVERY DAY TO KEEP DUTCH HEADS ABOVE WATER. THIS IS AN ESSENTIAL REALITY AND NO FINANCIAL SITUATION SHOULD BE ABLE TO ENDANGER IT. SAME SHOULD GO FOR WATER, FOOD, SANITATION, SAFETY, HEALTH, EDUCATION, CHILDCARE, ELDERCARE, INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND NATURAL FLOWS ALL AROUND THE PLANET.
      10. Develop yourself and others.
        1. BREATHE SLOWLY. PLAY WILDLY. VENTURE INTO NATURE. ENCOURAGE MEANINGFUL WORK OR SERVICE. EXPRESS YOUR DREAMS. IGNORE MARKETING AND ADVERTISING. CELEBRATE NATURAL BEAUTY IN THE MOMENT. RELATE TO AND WITH YOUR BODY. TUNE TO ITS NEEDS AND MESSAGES. DEVELOP INTUITION. BE DEEP, BECOME WISE. BECOME FULLY HUMAN AND REMARKABLY ALIVE.
      11. Guide governance.
        1. ENVISION GOVERNMENTS THAT WILL ENRICH THE PLANET AND RECONNECT ALL OF THE LIFE AND MATERIAL IN IT.
        2. DEVELOP PARADIGMS THAT INCLUDE NATURE AND ITS NEEDS AS FUNDAMENT.
        3. DEVELOP IDEAS THAT SOLVE ROOT CAUSES OF POVERTY, WAR, DESTRUCTION AND POLLUTION RATHER THAN ADDRESSING THE EFFECTS.
        4. DEVELOP SPACE FOR DIVERSITY OF IDEAS AND VOICES, SO NO FEW RADICALS CAN PUSH LARGE GROUPS TOWARDS VIOLENT IDEAS.
        5. AND PERHAPS MOST OF ALL, AS CHRISTOPHER CHASE PUT IT: ‘ACCEPT YOU ARE PART OF NATURE.’ WE MUST LIVE WITHIN OUR SOLAR BUDGET, JUST AS OUR CELLS SELF-REGULATE TO PERFORM VITAL ROLES WITHIN THE BODY WHOLE. CONCEIVE OF OUR PLACE WITHIN NATURE (AND NOT EXCLUSIVELY AROUND HUMANS ALL THE TIME). TO DO OTHERWISE MEANS BECOMING CANCER. WE NEED NATURE. WE ARE NATURE. LET US ACT, NATURALLY.
  2. Help others, help yourself

    1. HELP THE PEACEFUL MAJORITY, HELP THE PLANET TO SHIFT. WE WILL ONLY WIN, WHEN EVERYONE WINS.
    2. SUPPORT THE GENTLE REVOLUTION, BE DEVELOPING WHAT SHOULD COME AFTER. INNOVATE ONWARDS.
  3. End Notes on the development of this post

    1. MOST OF THIS POST WAS WRITTEN IN ONE SESSION AFTER AN INSPIRING ONLINE TALK WITH CHRISTOPHER CHASE (SEE HIS BLOG CREATIVESYSTEMSTHINKING) AND A FIRED UP CHAT WITH SHELLEY OSTROFF (SEE HER BLOG TOGETHERINCREATION). AND FINALLY THE NEW SCIENCE PARADIGM WAS BORN IN A SHORT TALK WITH JAN-HENK BOUMAN (FOUNTAINHEADS). THANK YOU ALL FOR YOUR TIME AND INSPIRATION.
    2. PART OF THIS PIECE WAS WRITTEN BY FLORIS KOOT AND WAS ORIGINALLY POSTED ON MEDIUM. IT HAS NOW BEEN FURTHER DEVELOPED BY OTHERS AND REPOSTED WITH PERMISSION UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE.
    3. THE GENTLE REVOLUTION IS ALSO ON FACEBOOK.
    4. MORE ON WHAT YOU CAN DO. HOW TO HELP.
    5. MORE ON HOW TO CHANGE EDUCATION.
    6. MORE ON HOW TO FIX CLIMATE CHANGE.
    7. HOW TO FIX CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE USA.
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What really matters

Persons

We are nature, we are animate, and we are sentient, made of the same stuff of stars. We should act like it.

 

Places

We live at home in families, we make work homes and families, and we frequent destinations in between.

 

Planets

Our environment is shared with all other living things and inanimate objects. These provide all of our possibilities.

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Regional climate change and national responsibilities


Why join www.citizensclimatelobby.org?

From one of two excellent 2016 papers by Dr. James E. Hansen et. al. Dr. Hansen was the top American climate scientist at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies: NASA GISS until his retirement in April 2013 after 46 years of government service. Many of his works are available to the public at http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/

These excerpts are from Dr. Hansen’s first 2016 paper, “Regional climate change and national responsibilities,” with Dr. Makiko Sato coauthoring. It was published 2 March 2016 in Environmental Research Letters, Volume 11, Number 3, http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/034009 last retrieved 6/20/2017. The headings are my own additions.

UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE SHIFTS:

Climate as bell curves show decadal shifts toward hot and chaotic

Figure 1

The bell curve shifts in 2005–2015 are only about one-third of the shift that will occur with 2 °C global warming. (Although warming of land areas in 2005–2015 is ~0.8 °C, figure 4, global mean warming is only ~0.6 °C relative to 1951–80; 1951–80 is ~0.3 °C warmer than pre-industrial, Hansen et al (2010), so 2 °C warming above pre-industrial implies 1.7 °C relative to 1951–1980.) Given the approximate linearity between mean temperature increase and bell curve shift, 2 °C global warming would yield a shift of about six standard deviations during summer in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Sahara and Sahel regions and a similar shift in all seasons in the African Rainforest and Southeast Asia (figure 3).

Regional climate decadal shifts as bell curves worse for some

Figure 2

Implications of these regional climate shifts are manifold. We note several consequences, focusing on their geographically uneven impact, especially the difference between developing countries at low latitudes and more developed northern nations. The examples and not a review of these burgeoning research areas, but they are sufficient to introduce discussion of relevance of these regional changes to the issue of dangerous human-made climate change.

Figure 3

UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE CONSEQUENCES:

Climate change and human conflict

Hsiang et al (2013) assemble the results of 60 quantitative studies of the relation between climate change and human conflict spanning the last 10 000 years and all major world regions. They find that interpersonal violence increases by 4% and intergroup conflict by 14% for each standard deviation change in temperature toward warmer temperatures. [Standard deviations are the numbers along the bottom axis in the bell curve charts.] Such findings do not constitute natural laws, but they provide a useful empirical estimate of impacts that can be used for at least a limited range of temperature increase. Increases we infer of 2–6 standard deviations with 2 °C global warming imply significant effects in all regions, but with larger effects at lower latitudes. Conflicts in turn tend to result in migrations with effects on both displaced and host populations (McMichael et al 2012).

Climate change and newly uninhabitable areas

Temperature rise itself imposes a strong disproportionately large effect on low latitude countries. Pal and Eltahir (2016) note that business-as-usual fossil fuel emissions result in some regions in the Middle East becoming practically uninhabitable by the end of this century as the wet bulb temperature approaches the level at which the human body is unable to cool itself under even well-ventilated outdoor conditions (Sherwood and Huber 2010) [“fit people can just disintegrate into a pool of useless people on stretchers. That’s what I see happening to society, to cultures” – Huber from “Limits to Adaptability”]. Today’s global temperature distribution has notable nonlinear effect on economic productivity (Burke et al 2015). Middle latitude countries have near-optimum temperature and limited impact from projected temperature change, but, in contrast, warmer countries, such as Indonesia, India and Nigeria are on a steep slope with rapidly declining productivity as temperature rises (figure 2, Burke et al 2015).

Climate change and sea level rise

These regional consequences of warming are accompanied by a threat that sea level rise poses to global coastlines, thus jointly creating a need for prompt strong actions to avoid tragic results. Earth’s history suggests that warming of even 1 °C above pre-industrial levels could eventually lead to 6–9 m sea level rise (Dutton et al 2015). IPCC (2013) estimates that about 1 m or less sea level rise would occur by 2100, but Hansen et al (2015) argue that amplifying feedbacks make a highly nonlinear response likely with potential for several meters of sea level rise this century and recent ice sheet models explore mechanisms that may contribute to rapid ice sheet collapse (Pollard et al 2015). If the ocean continues to accumulate heat and increase melting of marine-terminating ice shelves of Antarctica and Greenland, a point may be reached at which it is impossible to avoid large scale ice sheet disintegration. Given that a majority of large global cities are located on coastlines, sea level rise would add another source of migration pressure.

UNDERSTANDING WHAT MUST BE DONE:

Climate change prevention remains the goal

The United Nations 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC 1992) stated its objective as ‘…stabilization of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’. The 15th Conference of the Parties (Copenhagen Accord 2009) changed the focus to a goal to ‘…reduce global emissions so as to hold the increase of global temperature below 2 °C…’, and the 21st Conference of the parties added an aspirational goal of below 1.5 °C (Davenport 2015). However, we suggest that the UNFCCC (1992) objective to stabilize GHG concentrations is fundamental and starkly informs policy requirements.

Prompt restoration of 350 ppm CO2 ceiling hard but necessary

Atmospheric CO2 amount, in particular, is a great challenge in limiting GHG concentration. Earth’s paleoclimate history, especially the sensitivity of sea level to global temperature (Dutton et al 2015), and knowledge of Earth’s carbon cycle (Archer 2005, IPCC 2013, ch 6 ) provide a strong constraint, which Hansen et al (2008) use to infer that CO2 must be restored to a level no higher than ~350 ppm, with restoration prompt enough to avoid practically irreversible ocean warming and ice sheet disintegration. This estimate for the CO2 ceiling was affirmed by accurate measurements of Earth’s present energy imbalance (Hansen et al 2011, von Schuckmann et al 2016).

Dangerous human interference with climate system includes both insufficient action and geoengineering

Restoration of CO2 to a level at or below 350 ppm within a century, even with optimistic assumptions about restoration of biospheric and soil carbon, would require reductions of fossil fuel emissions by 5%–7% per year if reductions are started promptly (Hansen et al 2013b). Failure to achieve such reduction will result in continued long-term energy imbalance with Earth’s surface and ocean continuing to warm, growing regional climate impacts, accelerating ice sheet disintegration, and more rapidly rising sea level. As evidence of the situation and consequences grows, there may be increasing calls for climate ‘geo-engineering’ (Royal Society 2009) with unknown consequences (Sillmann et al 2015).

Voluntary goal effectiveness will require a rising price on carbon distributed uniformly to the public

Country-by-country goals, the approach of the 21st Conference of the Parties (Davenport 2015), will not lead to planetary energy balance and climate stabilitzation if fossil fuels are the cheapest energy. It is necessary to include ‘external’ costs to society in the fossil fuel price, especially the costs of climate change and air and water pollution (Ackerman and Stanton 2012), so that carbon-free energies and energy efficiency can supplant fossil fuels more rapidly. Such inclusive pricing of fossil fuels makes economies more efficient and reduces net economic hardships, if the carbon fee, collected from fossil fuel companies at domestic mines and ports of entry, rises gradually and if the funds are distributed uniformly to the public (Hansen 2015).

A few cooperating major powers can and must initiate

A carbon fee can be initiated by a few major economic powers and spread to most nations via border duties on fossil-fuel-derived products from non-participating nations and fee rebates to domestic manufacturers for goods shipped to non-participating nations (Hsu 2011). Issues raised by ‘coercive cooperation’ implicit in border adjustments (Bohringer et al 2012) will be subdued, once the severity and urgency of the climate threat is widely appreciated, by realization that fossil fuels cannot be phased out if some countries are allowed to export products made with untaxed fossil fuels. Developing countries have rights, recognized in the concept of common but differentiated responsibilities, and leverage to achieve economic assistance, which should be tied to the improved agricultural and forestry practices needed to limit trace gas emissions and store more carbon in the soil and biosphere. Finally, international cooperation in generating more affordable carbon-free energies is needed, or economic development in many nations will continue to be based on fossil fuels, despite pollution and climate impacts.

Dr. Hansen is one of my all-time heroes working on behalf of all children to come. DO GET INVOLVED in preserving a livable world: volunteer today –

www.cclusa.org

https://www.ourchildrenstrust.org/

https://www.ted.com/talks/james_hansen_why_i_must_speak_out_about_climate_change

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Congress Call-In Day, Friday June 9, 2017!

Dear volunteers/friends,
If you’ve been disappointed by some current events regarding climate change, then this is for you! Friday’s the day I’m calling my U.S. Senators and Representative to respectfully ask them to support carbon fee and dividend. Will you join me? Early next week members of Houston’s local CCL groups along with nearly a thousand of our fellow Citizens’ Climate Lobby volunteers will be in D.C. to lobby on behalf of all of us, and our phone calls will help underscore that we want strong and timely legislation. Especially right now, every single call or letter counts! Our chapter’s goals: 3 completed calls per person, with a record of at least 20 calls made. Won’t you please help us reach that by calling too?

It will take just a few minutes to make each call. You can get the script and phone numbers using this handy online calling tool: http://cclusa.org/callcongress

Or you can call using these numbers and the scripts below:

Representative Rep. Al Green (D-TX-09): 202-225-7508

Senator John Cornyn (R-TX): 202-224-2934

Senator Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX): 202-224-5922

Whichever way you make the call, would you please let me know when you’ve done it, so we can track our progress towards reaching our goal? paul.suckow@gmail.com or 832-231-8373

Thank you so much! It’s up to you and me to persuade Congress to take action and I’m so grateful we are side by side!

Signed

Paul M. Suckow, Volunteer Chapter Leader

Citizen’s Climate Lobby – Houston SW – Missouri City

5738 Cartagena Street

Houston, Texas 77035-2510

832-231-8373

 

PS if you feel uncomfortable cold-calling your representatives in government, feel free to call my number and I’ll be your sounding board. Practice makes perfect, and your genuine message to Congress makes all the difference.

PPS don’t forget to set aside time to attend our regular chapter monthly meeting on the second Saturday, June 10 from 11:30 am to 1:30 pm. All details will follow in tomorrow’s email!

Script with Admiration, Respect and Gratitude for our Democratic Congressman Al Green:

I’m a constituent and I’m calling about climate change.

Would you like my address to confirm I’m a constituent?

I want my Congressman Al Green to find ways to work across the aisle on bipartisan legislation which enacts Citizens’ Climate Lobby’s carbon fee and dividend proposal.

Congress should be moving strongly forward on solving the climate problem, rather than pulling back.

This is a very important issue to me because…..

(Your own personal reasons are the most important…suggestions are just to get you started…)

??? (I’m concerned about environmental injustice that lack of action creates for every citizen of the future and for citizens of color and lower incomes today who are most in harm’s way.)

??? (clean tech is our future and needs to be cheaper than fossil fuels ASAP)…

??? (coral reefs are amazing and we may now have lost the biggest one on Earth)…

??? (we all need access to clean water, and sea level rise, droughts, floods and fires damage water quality and sustainable supplies)…

??? (snow leopards, turtles and polar bears are awesome, like so many amazing species on the move as climate zones shift, including we humans)…

??? (the amount of damage from Hurricanes and other extreme weather is only becoming more serious due to where we choose to live and climate change)…

??? (I like winter sports, which climate change threatens)…

??? (I care about our State and National Parks and Forests, under threat from fire and heat, and lack of visitors)…

??? (I am alarmed by the number of children with asthma, which studies have linked to African dust storms made worse by climate change)…

??? (the Paris agreement was in itself insufficient without greater participation, and now the USA has proposed to abandon even that insufficient action!)…

Don’t forget to add your respect, thanks and admiration for the difficult job Al is doing to represent us in the government of the United States of America.

Figure 1 source: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jun/07/caring-about-climate-change-its-time-to-build-a-bridge-between-data-and-emotion

 

Admirably Grateful and Respectful Script for our Republican Senators John Cornyn and Ted Cruz:

I’m a constituent and I’m calling about climate change.

Would you like my address to confirm I’m a constituent?

I want Senator John Cornyn/Ted Cruz to sponsor bipartisan legislation which enacts Citizens’ Climate Lobby’s carbon fee and dividend proposal.

Congress should be moving strongly forward on solving the climate problem, rather than pulling back.

This is a very important issue to me because…..

(Your own personal reasons are the most important…suggestions are just to get you started…)

??? (the science is clear, responsible action is required, and only becomes harder to address as time goes by)…

??? (bees are pretty important to us, and we grow a lot of stuff here in Texas and nearby in Mexico)…

??? (I care about Texas’ natural heritage and its great outdoors)…

??? (I’m really worried about the costly floods we’ve had during big rain events)…

??? (Texas’ agriculture, health, water supply, infrastructure and more is threatened by climate change)…

??? (I love shrimp creole, and Gulf shrimp are having trouble breeding in the warmer water)…

??? (I need my coffee in the morning, Houston has a decent coffee industry, and supply could shrink due to climate change)…

??? (Texas oil industry is linked with Alaska’s, where permafrost is melting and threatening the pipelines)…

??? (natural disaster numbers have doubled in a few decades – and 90 percent of them are weather related, with climate change causing greater destruction to property and loss of life)…

??? (physical outcomes of the energy and lifestyle policy choices we make today will linger way past our lifetime or even that of our nation, a huge responsibility)…

??? (I care about human health)…

Don’t forget to add your respect, thanks and admiration for the difficult job they are doing to represent us in the government of the United States of America.

 

 

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