Tricks and Traditional Whiz-dim

Naming Conventions for Census Bureau Geographic and Demographic GIS Attributes

This discussion addresses field names for use in GIS practice when integrating U.S. Census Bureau data fields. Common Census software such as the American Fact Finder
quickly
outputs useful data but notes it using cryptic fieldnames that can only be fully deciphered with technical documentation found for the Decennial Census at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/technical-documentation.html and the ACS at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/technical-documentation.html. Here I suggest conventions that can be successfully applied in ESRI ArcGIS and related software to code field names that are succinct but user-friendly.

For wider consideration of geodatabase name and size limits, you may refer to http://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/10.3/manage-data/administer-file-gdbs/file-geodatabase-size-and-name-limits.htm.

Establishing naming conventions for field names in GIS Attribute files can be extremely challenging if we are to preserve backward compatibility with the now-ancient Data Base Format (.dbf) file conventions still commonly applied to attribute data storage and retrieval in ESRI Shape File datasets. More recent Access-style file geodatabases (.gdb) overcame the extreme 10-character limitation for field name character length presented by the .dbf format. Even more limiting were those original MS-DOS positional filename.ext convention of only EIGHT characters length (dot, three characters “extension”). To remain readable at such short identifier lengths, complex geographic and demographic characteristics have always been difficult to describe mnemonically with success, and many of us have tried over time to grapple with the problem.

Jack Dangermond’s ESRI ArcGIS

Hegemony of ESRI GIS software in the majority of use cases introduced additional considerations. In ArcGIS field names must not begin with a numeric character. ArcGIS keywords must be avoided.

Python

The adoption of the Python language by ESRI as its scripting language requires compatibility with Python programming naming conventions and keywords to avoid confusion in practice. Thus underscores must be limited to use within a field name, and any other punctuation in general is unsafe for .dbf backward compatibility. I have come to limit underscore to represent unavoidable punctuation which cannot be entered into a field name.

“In Python, if a name is intended to be “private“, it is prefixed by an underscore. Private variables are only enforced by convention in Python. Names can also be suffixed with an underscore to prevent conflict with Python keywords. Prefixing with double underscores changes behavior in classes with regard to name mangling. Prefixing and suffixing with double underscores are reserved for “magic names” which fulfill special behavior in Python objects.[32]” — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naming_convention_(programming), last retrieved 12/11/2018.

SQL

Additionally, the use of Structured Query Language (SQL) presents another set of keywords that could make life difficult if they were repeated inside fieldnames. For more information on SQL in ArcGIS, please see http://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/latest/manage-data/administer-file-gdbs/sql-reporting-and-anlysis-file-geodatabases.htm

These are limitations that we all agree to live with in the world of GIS.

Complete synthesis of all other practicable naming conventions is likely impossible, based on the general discussion of them on Wikipedia, reprinted from last retrieval 12/11/2018 below.

Source of the following: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naming_convention_(programming)

A General Discussion of (Programming) Naming Conventions from Wikipedia

Length of identifiers

Fundamental elements of all naming conventions are the rules related to identifier length (i.e., the finite number of individual characters allowed in an identifier). Some rules dictate a fixed numerical bound, while others specify less precise heuristics or guidelines.

Identifier length rules are routinely contested in practice, and subject to much debate academically.

Some considerations:

  • shorter identifiers may be preferred as more expedient, because they are easier to type (although many IDEs and text-editors provide text-completion, which mitigates this)
  • extremely short identifiers (such as ‘i’ or ‘j’) are very difficult to uniquely distinguish using automated search and replace tools (although this is not an issue for regex-based tools)
  • longer identifiers may be preferred because short identifiers cannot encode enough information or appear too cryptic
  • longer identifiers may be disfavored because of visual clutter

It is an open research issue whether some programmers prefer shorter identifiers because they are easier to type, or think up, than longer identifiers, or because in many situations a longer identifier simply clutters the visible code and provides no perceived additional benefit.

Brevity in programming could be in part attributed to:

  • early linkers which required variable names to be restricted to 6 characters to save memory. A later “advance” allowed longer variable names to be used for human comprehensibility, but where only the first few characters were significant. In some versions of BASIC such as TRS-80 Level 2 Basic, long names were allowed, but only the first two letters were significant. This feature permitted erroneous behaviour that could be difficult to debug, for example when names such as “VALUE” and “VAT” were used and intended to be distinct.
  • early source code editors lacking autocomplete
  • early low-resolution monitors with limited line length (e.g. only 80 characters)
  • much of computer science originating from mathematics, where variable names are traditionally only a single letter

    Letter case and numerals

Some naming conventions limit whether letters may appear in uppercase or lowercase. Other conventions do not restrict letter case, but attach a well-defined interpretation based on letter case. Some naming conventions specify whether alphabetic, numeric, or alphanumeric characters may be used, and if so, in what sequence.

Multiple-word identifiers

A common recommendation is “Use meaningful identifiers.” A single word may not be as meaningful, or specific, as multiple words. Consequently, some naming conventions specify rules for the treatment of “compound” identifiers containing more than one word.

As most programming languages do not allow whitespace in identifiers, a method of delimiting each word is needed (to make it easier for subsequent readers to interpret which characters belong to which word). Historically some early languages, notably FORTRAN (1955) and ALGOL (1958), allowed spaces within identifiers, determining the end of identifiers by context. This was abandoned in later languages due to the difficulty of tokenization. It is possible to write names by simply concatenating words, and this is sometimes used, as in mypackage for Java package names,[3] though legibility suffers for longer terms, so usually some form of separation is used.

Delimiter-separated words

One approach is to delimit separate words with a nonalphanumeric character. The two characters commonly used for this purpose are the hyphen (“-“) and the underscore (“_”); e.g., the two-word name “two words” would be represented as “two-words” or “two_words“. The hyphen is used by nearly all programmers writing COBOL (1959), Forth (1970), and Lisp (1958); it is also common in Unix for commands and packages, and is used in CSS.[4] This convention has no standard name, though it may be referred to as lisp-case or COBOL-CASE (compare Pascal case), kebab-case, or other variants.[5][6][7][8] Of these, kebab-case, dating at least to 2012,[9] has achieved some currency since.[10][11]

By contrast, languages in the FORTRAN/ALGOL tradition, notably languages in the C and Pascal families, used the hyphen for the subtraction
infix operator, and did not wish to require spaces around it (as free-form languages), preventing its use in identifiers. An alternative is to use underscores; this is common in the C family (including Python), with lowercase words, being found for example in The C Programming Language (1978), and has come to be known as snake case. Underscores with uppercase, as in UPPER_CASE, are commonly used for C preprocessor macros, hence known as MACRO_CASE, and for environment variables in Unix, such as BASH_VERSION in bash. Sometimes this is humorously referred to as SCREAMING_SNAKE_CASE.

Letter case-separated words

See also: Letter case § Special case styles

Another approach is to indicate word boundaries using medial capitalization, called “CamelCase“, “Pascal case”, and many other names, thus rendering “two words” as either “twoWords” or “TwoWords“. This convention is commonly used in Pascal, Java, C#, and Visual Basic. Treatment of acronyms in identifiers (e.g. the “XML” and “HTTP” in XMLHttpRequest) varies. Some dictate that they be lowercased (e.g. XmlHttpRequest) to ease typing and readability, whereas others leave them uppercased (e.g. XMLHTTPRequest) for accuracy.

Metadata and hybrid conventions

Some naming conventions represent rules or requirements that go beyond the requirements of a specific project or problem domain, and instead reflect a greater overarching set of principles defined by the software architecture, underlying programming language or other kind of cross-project methodology.

Hungarian notation

Perhaps the most well-known is Hungarian notation, which encodes either the purpose (“Apps Hungarian”) or the type (“Systems Hungarian”) of a variable in its name.[12] For example, the prefix “sz” for the variable szName indicates that the variable is a null-terminated string.

Positional notation

A style used for very short (8 characters and less) could be: LCCIIL01, where LC would be the application (Letters of Credit), C for COBOL, IIL for the particular process subset, and the 01 a sequence number.

This sort of convention is still in active use in mainframes dependent upon JCL and is also seen in the 8.3 (maximum 8 characters with period separator followed by 3 character file type) MS-DOS style.

Composite word scheme (OF Language)

IBM’s “OF Language” was documented in an IMS (Information Management System) manual.

It detailed the PRIME-MODIFIER-CLASS word scheme, which consisted of names like “CUST-ACT-NO” to indicate “customer account number”.

PRIME words were meant to indicate major “entities” of interest to a system.

MODIFIER words were used for additional refinement, qualification and readability.

CLASS words ideally would be a very short list of data types relevant to a particular application. Common CLASS words might be: NO (number), ID (identifier), TXT (text), AMT (amount), QTY (quantity), FL (flag), CD (code), W (work) and so forth. In practice, the available CLASS words would be a list of less than two dozen terms.

CLASS words, typically positioned on the right (suffix), served much the same purpose as Hungarian notation prefixes.

The purpose of CLASS words, in addition to consistency, was to specify to the programmer the data type of a particular data field. Prior to the acceptance of BOOLEAN (two values only) fields, FL (flag) would indicate a field with only two possible values.

 

Language-specific conventions

ActionScript

Adobe’s Coding Conventions and Best Practices suggests naming standards for ActionScript that are mostly consistent with those of ECMAScript.[citation needed] The style of identifiers is similar to that of Java.

Ada

In Ada, the only recommended style of identifiers is Mixed_Case_With_Underscores.[13]

C and C++

In C and C++, keywords and standard library identifiers are mostly lowercase. In the C standard library, abbreviated names are the most common (e.g. isalnum for a function testing whether a character is alphanumeric), while the C++ standard library often uses an underscore as a word separator (e.g. out_of_range). Identifiers representing macros are, by convention, written using only uppercase letters and underscores (this is related to the convention in many programming languages of using all-upper-case identifiers for constants). Names containing double underscore or beginning with an underscore and a capital letter are reserved for implementation (compiler, standard library) and should not be used (e.g. __reserved or _Reserved).[14][15] This is superficially similar to stropping, but the semantics differ: the underscores are part of the value of the identifier, rather than being quoting characters (as is stropping): the value of __foo is __foo (which is reserved), not foo (but in a different namespace).

Go

In Go, the convention is to use MixedCaps or mixedCaps rather than underscores to write multiword names.[16]

Java

In Java, naming conventions for identifiers have been established and suggested by various Java communities such as Sun Microsystems,[17] Netscape,[18] AmbySoft,[19] etc. A sample of naming conventions set by Sun Microsystems are listed below, where a name in “CamelCase” is one composed of a number of words joined without spaces, with each word’s initial letter in capitals — for example “CamelCase”.

Identifier type  

Rules for naming  

Examples  

Classes  

Class names should be nouns in UpperCamelCase, with the first letter of every word capitalised. Use whole words — avoid acronyms and abbreviations (unless the abbreviation is much more widely used than the long form, such as URL or HTML).

  • class Raster {}
  • class ImageSprite {}

Methods  

Methods should be verbs in lowerCamelCase or a multi-word name that begins with a verb in lowercase; that is, with the first letter lowercase and the first letters of subsequent words in uppercase.

  • run();
  • runFast();
  • getBackground();

Variables  

Local variables, instance variables, and class variables are also written in lowerCamelCase. Variable names should not start with underscore (_) or dollar sign ($) characters, even though both are allowed. This is in contrast to other coding conventions that state that underscores should be used to prefix all instance variables.

Variable names should be short yet meaningful. The choice of a variable name should be mnemonic — that is, designed to indicate to the casual observer the intent of its use. One-character variable names should be avoided except for temporary “throwaway” variables. Common names for temporary variables are i, j, k, m, and n for integers; c, d, and e for characters.

  • int i;
  • char c;
  • float myWidth;

Constants  

Constants should be written in uppercase characters separated by underscores. Constant names may also contain digits if appropriate, but not as the first character.

  • static final int MAX_PARTICIPANTS = 10;

Java compilers do not enforce these rules, but failing to follow them may result in confusion and erroneous code. For example, widget.expand() and Widget.expand() imply significantly different behaviours: widget.expand() implies an invocation to method expand() in an instance named widget, whereas Widget.expand() implies an invocation to static method expand() in class Widget.

One widely used Java coding style dictates that UpperCamelCase be used for classes and lowerCamelCase be used for instances and methods.[17] Recognising this usage, some IDEs, such as Eclipse, implement shortcuts based on CamelCase. For instance, in Eclipse’s content assist feature, typing just the upper-case letters of a CamelCase word will suggest any matching class or method name (for example, typing “NPE” and activating content assist could suggest NullPointerException).

Initialisms of three or more letters are CamelCase instead of uppercase (e.g., parseDbmXmlFromIPAddress instead of parseDBMXMLFromIPAddress). One may also set the boundary at two or more letters (e.g. parseDbmXmlFromIpAddress).

JavaScript

The built-in JavaScript libraries use the same naming conventions as Java. Data types and constructor functions use upper camel case (RegExp, TypeError, XMLHttpRequest, DOMObject) and methods use lower camel case (getElementById, getElementsByTagNameNS, createCDATASection). In order to be consistent most JavaScript developers follow these conventions.[20] See also: Douglas Crockford’s conventions

Lisp

Common practice in most Lisp dialects is to use dashes to separate words in identifiers, as in with-open-file and make-hash-table. Dynamic variable names conventionally start and end with asterisks: *map-walls*. Constants names are marked by plus signs: +map-size+.[21][22]

.NET

Microsoft
.NET recommends
UpperCamelCase for most identifiers. (lowerCamelCase is recommended for parameters and variables) and is a shared convention for the .NET languages.[23] Microsoft further recommends that no type prefix hints (also known as Hungarian notation) are used.[24] Instead of using Hungarian notation it is recommended to end the name with the base class’ name; LoginButton instead of BtnLogin.[25]

Objective-C

Objective-C has a common coding style that has its roots in Smalltalk .

Top-level entities, including classes, protocols, categories, as well as C constructs that are used in Objective-C programs like global variables and functions, are in UpperCamelCase with a short all-uppercase prefix denoting namespace, like NSString, UIAppDelegate, NSApp or CGRectMake. Constants may optionally be prefixed with a lowercase letter “k” like kCFBooleanTrue.

Instance variables of an object use lowerCamelCase prefixed with an underscore, like _delegate and _tableView.

Method names use multiple lowerCamelCase parts separated by colons that delimit arguments, like: application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:, stringWithFormat: and isRunning.

Pascal, Modula-2 and Oberon

Wirthian languages Pascal, Modula-2 and Oberon generally use Capitalized or UpperCamelCase identifiers for programs, modules, constants, types and procedures, and lowercase or lowerCamelCase identifiers for math constants, variables, formal parameters and functions.[26] While some dialects support underscore and dollar signs in identifiers, snake case and macro case is more likely confined to use within foreign API interfaces.[27]

Perl

Perl takes some cues from its C heritage for conventions. Locally scoped variables and subroutine names are lowercase with infix underscores. Subroutines and variables meant to be treated as private are prefixed with an underscore. Package variables are title cased. Declared constants are all caps. Package names are camel case excepting pragmata—e.g., strict and mro—which are lowercase. [28]
[29]

Perl 6

Perl 6 follows more or less the same conventions as Perl, except that it allows an infix hyphen – or an apostrophe ‘ (or single quote) within an identifier (but not two in a row), provided that it is followed by an alphabetic character. Perl 6 programmers thus often use kebab case in their identifiers; for example, fish-food and don’t-do-that are valid identifiers. [30]

PHP

PHP recommendations are contained in PSR-1 (PHP Standard Recommendation 1) and PSR-2.[31]

Python and Ruby

Python and Ruby both recommend UpperCamelCase for class names, CAPITALIZED_WITH_UNDERSCORES for constants, and lowercase_separated_by_underscores for other names.

In Python, if a name is intended to be “private“, it is prefixed by an underscore. Private variables are only enforced by convention in Python. Names can also be suffixed with an underscore to prevent conflict with Python keywords. Prefixing with double underscores changes behaviour in classes with regard to name mangling. Prefixing and suffixing with double underscores are reserved for “magic names” which fulfill special behaviour in Python objects.[32]

Rust

Rust recommends UpperCamelCase for type aliases and struct, trait, enum, and enum variant names, CAPITALIZED_WITH_UNDERSCORES for constants or statics, and lowercase_separated_by_underscores for other names.[33]

Swift

Swift has shifted its naming conventions with each individual release. However a major update with Swift 3.0 stabilised the naming conventions for lowerCamelCase across variables and function declarations. Constants are usually defined by enum types or constant parameters that are also written this way. Class and other object type declarations are UpperCamelCase.

As of Swift 3.0 there have been made clear naming guidelines for the language in an effort to standardise the API naming and declaration conventions across all third party APIs. [34]

See also

  1. ^ Derek M. Jones “Operand names influence operator precedence decisions” An experiment investigating the effect of variable names on operator precedence selection
  2. ^
    Raymond, Eric S. (1 October 2004). “religious issues”. The Jargon File (version 4.4.8 ed.). Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  3. ^
    Naming a Package
  4. ^
    “CSS reference”. Mozilla Developer Network. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  5. ^
    “StackOverflow – What’s the name for snake_case with dashes?”.
  6. ^
    “Programmers – If this is camelCase what-is-this?”.
  7. ^
    “Camel_SNAKE-kebab”.
  8. ^
    UnderscoreVersusCapitalAndLowerCaseVariableNaming
  9. ^
    jwfearn (5 September 2012). “Revisions to jwfearn’s answer to What’s the name for dash-separated case?”.
  10. ^
    Living Clojure (2015), by Carin Meier, p. 91
  11. ^
    lodash: kebabCase
  12. ^
    http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/Wrong.html
  13. ^
    http://www.adaic.org/resources/add_content/docs/95style/html/sec_3/3-2-1.html
  14. ^
    “ISO/IEC 9899:1999 Programming languages — C”. ISO.
  15. ^
    “ISO/IEC 14882:2011 Information technology — Programming languages — C++”. ISO.
  16. ^
    https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#mixed-caps
  17. ^ Jump up to: a
    b “Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language”, Section 9: “Naming Conventions”
  18. ^ “NETSCAPE’S SOFTWARE CODING STANDARDS GUIDE FOR JAVA”,Collab Software Coding Standards Guide for Java
  19. ^
    “AmbySoft Inc. Coding Standards for Java v17.01d”
  20. ^
    Morelli, Brandon. “5 JavaScript Style Guides – Including AirBnB, GitHub, & Google”. codeburst.io. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  21. ^
    http://www.gigamonkeys.com/book/variables.html
  22. ^
    Naming conventions on CLiki
  23. ^
    Microsoft .NET Framework Capitalization Styles
  24. ^
    .NET Framework Developer’s Guide – General Naming Conventions
  25. ^ [Framework Design Guidelines, Krzysztof Cwalina, Brad Abrams Page 62]
  26. ^
    Modula-2 Name Convention
  27. ^
    Foreign API Identifiers in Modula-2 Name Convention
  28. ^
    “Perl style guide”.
  29. ^
    “perlmodlib – constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones”.
  30. ^
    “General rules of Perl 6 syntax”.
  31. ^
    “PHP standards recommendations”.
  32. ^
    Style Guide for Python Code PEP8
  33. ^
    “Naming conventions”. doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  34. External links

 

My Census Field Naming Convention in Action with 2010-vintage U.S. Census ACS data

Shape dbf field 

Mnemonic geodatabase field 

ITEM 

STUB 

     

DPSF1. SEX AND AGE [57] 

     

Universe: Total population 

_tPop 

_tPop 

DP0010001 

Total: 

AgeUnd5 

AgeUnd5 

DP0010002 

Under 5 years 

Age5_9 

Age5_9 

DP0010003

5 to 9 years 

Age10_14 

Age10_14 

DP0010004 

10 to 14 years 

Age15_19 

Age15_19 

DP0010005 

15 to 19 years 

Age20_24 

Age20_24 

DP0010006 

20 to 24 years 

Age25_29 

Age25_29 

DP0010007 

25 to 29 years 

Age30_34 

Age30_34 

DP0010008 

30 to 34 years 

Age35_39 

Age35_39

DP0010009 

35 to 39 years 

Age40_44 

Age40_44 

DP0010010 

40 to 44 years 

Age45_49 

Age45_49 

DP0010011 

45 to 49 years 

Age50_54 

Age50_54 

DP0010012 

50 to 54 years 

Age55_59 

Age55_59 

DP0010013 

55 to 59 years 

Age60_64 

Age60_64 

DP0010014 

60 to 64 years 

Age65_69

Age65_69 

DP0010015 

65 to 69 years 

Age70_74 

Age70_74 

DP0010016 

70 to 74 years 

Age75_79 

Age75_79 

DP0010017 

75 to 79 years 

Age80_84 

Age80_84 

DP0010018 

80 to 84 years 

Age85Up 

Age85Up 

DP0010019 

85 years and over 

Male 

Male 

DP0010020 

Male: 

MaAgeUnd5

MaAgeUnd5 

DP0010021 

Under 5 years 

MaAge5_9 

MaAge5_9 

DP0010022 

5 to 9 years 

MaAge10_14 

MaAge10_14 

DP0010023 

10 to 14 years 

MaAge15_19 

MaAge15_19 

DP0010024 

15 to 19 years 

MaAge20_24 

MaAge20_24 

DP0010025 

20 to 24 years 

MaAge25_29 

MaAge25_29 

DP0010026

25 to 29 years 

MaAge30_34 

MaAge30_34 

DP0010027 

30 to 34 years 

MaAge35_39 

MaAge35_39 

DP0010028 

35 to 39 years 

MaAge40_44 

MaAge40_44 

DP0010029 

40 to 44 years 

MaAge45_49 

MaAge45_49 

DP0010030 

45 to 49 years 

MaAge50_54 

MaAge50_54 

DP0010031 

50 to 54 years

MaAge55_59 

MaAge55_59 

DP0010032 

55 to 59 years 

MaAge60_64 

MaAge60_64 

DP0010033 

60 to 64 years 

MaAge65_69 

MaAge65_69 

DP0010034 

65 to 69 years 

MaAge70_74 

MaAge70_74 

DP0010035 

70 to 74 years 

MaAge75_79 

MaAge75_79 

DP0010036 

75 to 79 years

MaAge80_84 

MaAge80_84 

DP0010037 

80 to 84 years 

MaAge85Up 

MaAge85Up 

DP0010038 

85 years and over 

Female 

Female 

DP0010039 

Female: 

FeAgeUnd5 

FeAgeUnd5 

DP0010040 

Under 5 years 

FeAge5_9 

FeAge5_9 

DP0010041 

5 to 9 years 

FeAge10_14 

FeAge10_14 

DP0010042 

10 to 14 years 

FeAge15_19 

FeAge15_19 

DP0010043 

15 to 19 years 

FeAge20_24 

FeAge20_24 

DP0010044 

20 to 24 years 

FeAge25_29 

FeAge25_29 

DP0010045 

25 to 29 years 

FeAge30_34 

FeAge30_34 

DP0010046 

30 to 34 years 

FeAge35_39 

FeAge35_39 

DP0010047 

35 to 39 years

FeAge40_44 

FeAge40_44 

DP0010048 

40 to 44 years 

FeAge45_49 

FeAge45_49 

DP0010049 

45 to 49 years 

FeAge50_54 

FeAge50_54 

DP0010050 

50 to 54 years 

FeAge55_59 

FeAge55_59 

DP0010051 

55 to 59 years 

FeAge60_64 

FeAge60_64 

DP0010052 

60 to 64 years 

FeAge65_69

FeAge65_69 

DP0010053 

65 to 69 years 

FeAge70_74 

FeAge70_74 

DP0010054 

70 to 74 years 

FeAge75_79 

FeAge75_79 

DP0010055 

75 to 79 years 

FeAge80_84 

FeAge80_84 

DP0010056 

80 to 84 years 

FeAge85Up 

FeAge85Up 

DP0010057 

85 years and over 

       
     

DPSF2. MEDIAN AGE BY SEX [3] (1 expressed decimal)

     

Universe: Total population 

     

Median age- 

MedianAge 

MedianAge 

DP0020001 

Both sexes 

MaMedAge 

MaMedAge 

DP0020002 

Male 

FeMedAge 

FeMedAge 

DP0020003 

Female 

       
     

DPSF3. SEX FOR THE POPULATION 16 YEARS AND OVER [3]

     

Universe: Population 16 years and over 

Age16Up 

Age16Up 

DP0030001 

Total: 

MaAge16Up 

MaAge16Up 

DP0030002 

Male 

FeAge16Up 

FeAge16Up 

DP0030003 

Female 

       
     

DPSF4. SEX FOR THE POPULATION 18 YEARS AND OVER [3] 

     

Universe: Population 18 years and over

Age18Up 

Age18Up 

DP0040001 

Total: 

MaAge18Up 

MaAge18Up 

DP0040002 

Male 

FeAge18Up 

FeAge18Up 

DP0040003 

Female 

       
     

DPSF5. SEX FOR THE POPULATION 21 YEARS AND OVER [3] 

     

Universe: Population 21 years and over 

Age21Up 

Age21Up 

DP0050001

Total: 

MaAge21Up 

MaAge21Up 

DP0050002 

Male 

FeAge21Up 

FeAge21Up 

DP0050003 

Female 

       
     

DPSF6. SEX FOR THE POPULATION 62 YEARS AND OVER [3] 

     

Universe: Population 62 years and over 

Age62Up 

Age62Up 

DP0060001 

Total: 

MaAge62Up 

MaAge62Up 

DP0060002

Male 

FeAge62Up 

FeAge62Up 

DP0060003 

Female 

       
     

DPSF7. SEX FOR THE POPULATION 65 YEARS AND OVER [3] 

     

Universe: Population 65 years and over 

Age65Up 

Age65Up 

DP0070001 

Total: 

MaAge65Up 

MaAge65Up 

DP0070002 

Male 

FeAge65Up 

FeAge65Up 

DP0070003 

Female 

       
     

DPSF8. RACE [24] 

     

Universe: Total population 

TotPop 

TotPop 

DP0080001 

Total: 

PopOneRace 

PopOneRace 

DP0080002 

Population of one race: 

WhiteAlone 

WhiteAlone 

DP0080003 

White 

BlackAlone 

BlackAlone 

DP0080004 

Black or African American

AIANAlone 

AIANAlone 

DP0080005 

American Indian and Alaska Native 

AsianAlone 

AsianAlone 

DP0080006 

Asian: 

SAIndianAl 

SAIndianAlone 

DP0080007 

Asian Indian 

ChineseAlo 

ChineseAlone 

DP0080008 

Chinese 

FilipinoAl 

FilipinoAlone 

DP0080009 

Filipino

JapaneseAl 

JapaneseAlone 

DP0080010 

Japanese 

KoreanAlon 

KoreanAlone 

DP0080011 

Korean 

Vietnamese 

VietnameseAlone 

DP0080012 

Vietnamese 

OtAsianAlo 

OtAsianAlone 

DP0080013 

Other Asian 

NHOPIAlone 

NHOPIAlone 

DP0080014 

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander:

NHAlone 

NHAlone 

DP0080015 

Native Hawaiian 

GuamAlone 

GuamAlone 

DP0080016 

Guamanian or Chamorro 

SamoanAlon 

SamoanAlone 

DP0080017 

Samoan 

OPIAlone 

OPIAlone 

DP0080018 

Other Pacific Islander 

OtAlone 

OtAlone 

DP0080019 

Some Other Race

MultiRace 

MultiRace 

DP0080020 

Population of Two or More Races 

WhiteAIAN 

WhiteAIAN 

DP0080021 

White; American Indian and Alaska Native 

WhiteAsian 

WhiteAsian 

DP0080022 

White; Asian 

WhiteBlack 

WhiteBlack 

DP0080023 

White; Black or African American

WhiteOther 

WhiteOther 

DP0080024 

White; Some Other Race 

       
     

DPSF9. RACE (TOTAL RACES TALLIED) [6] 

     

Universe: Total races tallied 

WhiteCombo 

WhiteCombo 

DP0090001 

White alone or in combination with one or more other races 

BlackCombo 

BlackCombo

DP0090002 

Black or African American alone or in combination with one or more other races 

AIANCombo 

AIANCombo 

DP0090003 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races 

AsianCombo 

AsianCombo 

DP0090004 

Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races

NHOPICombo 

NHOPICombo 

DP0090005 

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination with one or more other races 

OtherCombo 

OtherCombo 

DP0090006 

Some Other Race alone or in combination with one or more other races

       
     

DPSF10. HISPANIC OR LATINO BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN [7] 

     

Universe: Total population 

TotPop 

TotPop 

DP0100001 

Total: 

HispLatAny 

HispLatAnyRace 

DP0100002 

Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 

Mexican 

Mexican 

DP0100003 

Mexican

PeurtoRica 

PeurtoRican 

DP0100004 

Puerto Rican 

Cuban 

Cuban 

DP0100005 

Cuban 

OtherHispL 

OtherHispLat 

DP0100006 

Other Hispanic or Latino 

NHLAnyRace 

NHLAnyRace 

DP0100007 

Not Hispanic or Latino 

       
     

DPSF11. HISPANIC OR LATINO AND RACE [17]

     

Universe: Total population 

TotPop 

TotPop 

DP0110001 

Total: 

HispLatAny 

HispLatAnyRace 

DP0110002 

Hispanic or Latino: 

HispWhiteA 

HispWhiteA 

DP0110003 

White alone 

HispBlackA 

HispBlackA 

DP0110004 

Black or African American alone 

HispAIANA 

HispAIANA

DP0110005 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone 

HispAsianA 

HispAsianA 

DP0110006 

Asian alone 

HispNHOPIA 

HispNHOPIA 

DP0110007 

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 

HispOtherA 

HispOtherA 

DP0110008 

Some Other Race alone 

HispMultiR

HispMultiRace 

DP0110009 

Two or More Races 

NHLAnyRace 

NHLAnyRace 

DP0110010 

Not Hispanic or Latino: 

NHLWhiteA 

NHLWhiteA 

DP0110011 

White alone 

NHLBlackA 

NHLBlackA 

DP0110012 

Black or African American alone 

NHLAIANA 

NHLAIANA 

DP0110013 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone

NHLAsianA 

NHLAsianA 

DP0110014 

Asian alone 

NHLNHOPIA 

NHLNHOPIA 

DP0110015 

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 

NHLOtherA 

NHLOtherA 

DP0110016 

Some Other Race alone 

NHLMultiRa 

NHLMultiRace 

DP0110017

Two or More Races 

       
     

DPSF12. RELATIONSHIP [20] 

     

Universe: Total population 

TotPop 

TotPop 

DP0120001 

Total: 

HHPop 

HHPop 

DP0120002 

In households: 

HHr 

HHr 

DP0120003 

Householder 

Spouse 

Spouse 

DP0120004 

Spouse 

Child 

Child 

DP0120005

Child 

OCU18 

OCU18 

DP0120006 

Own child under 18 years 

OtRel 

OtRel 

DP0120007 

Other relatives 

OtRelU18 

OtRelU18 

DP0120008 

Under 18 years 

OtRel65Up 

OtRel65Up 

DP0120009 

65 years and over 

NnRel 

NnRel 

DP0120010 

Nonrelatives 

NnRelU18 

NnRelU18

DP0120011 

Under 18 years 

NnRel65Up 

NnRel65Up 

DP0120012 

65 years and over 

UnmarriedP 

UnmarriedPartner 

DP0120013 

Unmarried partner 

GQPop 

GQPop 

DP0120014 

In group quarters: 

Institutio 

Institutionalized 

DP0120015 

Institutionalized population:

MaInstitut 

MaInstitutionalized 

DP0120016 

Male 

FeInstitut 

FeInstitutionalized 

DP0120017 

Female 

NnInstitut 

NnInstitutionalized 

DP0120018 

Noninstitutionalized population: 

MaNnInstit 

MaNnInstitutionalized 

DP0120019 

Male 

FeNnInstit

FeNnInstitutionalized 

DP0120020 

Female 

       
     

DPSF13. HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE [15] 

     

Universe: Households 

TotHH 

TotHH 

DP0130001 

Total: 

FamilyHH 

FamilyHH 

DP0130002 

Family households (families) 

FmHHOCU18 

FmHHOCU18 

DP0130003 

With own children under 18 years

FmHHHW 

FmHHHW 

DP0130004 

Husband-wife family 

FmHWOCU18 

FmHWOCU18 

DP0130005 

With own children under 18 years 

FmHHMaSgl 

FmHHMaSgl 

DP0130006 

Male householder, no wife present 

FmMaSglOCU 

FmMaSglOCU18 

DP0130007 

With own children under 18 years

FmHHFeSgl 

FmHHFeSgl 

DP0130008 

Female householder, no husband present 

FmFeSglOCU 

FmFeSglOCU18 

DP0130009 

With own children under 18 years 

NnFmHH 

NnFmHH 

DP0130010 

Nonfamily households 

NnFmHHSgl 

NnFmHHSgl 

DP0130011 

Householder living alone:

NnFmHHSMal 

NnFmHHSMale 

DP0130012 

Male 

NnFmHHSM65 

NnFmHHSM65Up 

DP0130013 

65 years and over 

NnFmHHSFem 

NnFmHHSFemale 

DP0130014 

Female 

NnFmHHSF65 

NnFmHHSF65Up 

DP0130015 

65 years and over 

       
     

DPSF14. HOUSEHOLDS WITH INDIVIDUALS UNDER 18 YEARS [1]

     

Universe: Households with individuals under 18 years 

HHw_AgeU18 

HHw_AgeU18 

DP0140001 

Total 

       
     

DPSF15. HOUSEHOLDS WITH INDIVIDUALS 65 YEARS AND OVER [1] 

     

Universe: Households with individuals 65 years and over 

HHw_Age65U

HHw_Age65Up 

DP0150001 

Total 

       
     

DPSF16. AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE [1] (2 expressed decimals) 

     

Universe: Households 

AvgHHSize 

AvgHHSize 

DP0160001 

Average household size 

       
     

DPSF17. AVERAGE FAMILY SIZE [1] (2 expressed decimals) 

     

Universe: Families 

AvgFmSize 

AvgFmSize 

DP0170001 

Average family size 

       
     

DPSF18. HOUSING OCCUPANCY [9] 

     

Universe: Total housing units 

TotHU 

TotHU 

DP0180001 

Total: 

OccHU 

OccHU 

DP0180002 

Occupied housing units 

VacHU 

VacHU 

DP0180003 

Vacant housing units:

VacHUForRe 

VacHUForRent 

DP0180004 

For rent 

VacHURNnOc 

VacHURNnOcc 

DP0180005 

Rented, not occupied 

VacHUForSa 

VacHUForSaleOnly 

DP0180006 

For sale only 

VacHUONnOc 

VacHUONnOcc 

DP0180007 

Sold, not occupied 

VacHUSeaso 

VacHUSeasonalRecreationalOccasionalUse

DP0180008 

For seasonal, recreational, or occasional use 

VacHUOther 

VacHUOther 

DP0180009 

All other vacants 

       
     

DPSF19. HOMEOWNER VACANCY RATE [1] (1 expressed decimal) 

     

Universe: Owner-occupied, vacant for sale only, and vacant sold but not occupied housing units

P_OVacRt 

P_OVacRt 

DP0190001 

Homeowner vacancy rate (percent) 

       
     

DPSF20. RENTAL VACANCY RATE [1] (1 expressed decimal) 

     

Universe: Renter-occupied, vacant for rent, and vacant rented but not occupied housing units

P_RVacRt 

P_RVacRt 

DP0200001 

Rental vacancy rate (percent) 

       
     

DPSF21. HOUSING TENURE [3] 

     

Universe: Occupied housing units 

   

DP0210001 

Total: 

OOcHU 

OOcHU 

DP0210002 

Owner-occupied housing units 

ROcHU 

ROcHU 

DP0210003 

Renter-occupied housing units

       
     

DPSF22. POPULATION IN OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS BY TENURE [2] 

     

Universe: Population in occupied housing units 

PopOOcHU 

PopOOcHU 

DP0220001 

Owner-occupied housing units 

PopROcHU 

PopROcHU 

DP0220002 

Renter-occupied housing units

       
     

DPSF23. AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE OF OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS BY TENURE [2] (2 expressed decimals) 

     

Universe: Occupied housing units 

     

Average household size- 

AvgHHSzOOc 

AvgHHSzOOc 

DP0230001 

Owner occupied 

AvgHHSzROc 

AvgHHSzROc 

DP0230002 

Renter occupied 

 

How to Use My Census Field Naming Convention

Since Census data for statistical (permanent) rather than purely political (impermanent or incrementing) areas are persistent over many decadal periods, the fields that describe them are closer to classes than methods or instances. They are the farthest thing from temporary variables. Following my old training in structured programming and Pascal, now partially adapted within the Java custom, a mix primarily of UpperCamelCase
for word boundaries using medial capitalization and positional and some common case keys has resulted in the following recommendation. All punctuation is replaced inside of field names by certain abbreviation and underscore conventions, and full word spellings are preserved as much as is practical. Some of the abbreviations included here are forward-looking to a time when sexual orientation and gender identity is described by the U. S. Census to assist with future equal protection and treatment under American law.

FOR CENSUS FILE AND FIELD NAMES: 

  

Standard Mnemonic Abbreviations: 

Meaning: 

2010 

Final Year of Count or Sample Data Used (ACS field suffix, 1-yr, 3-yr, or 5-yr samples, or field suffix for year of decennial count, dropped when only one year is consistent throughout a dataset and appears in the metadata)

(Underscore character) the only permissible field name punctuation character; wildcard that also means ” to ” when used between numeric characters that define a range; may stand for any other obvious punctuation mark

Alone (of a single characteristic) 

As 

Asian (race-ethnicity), extreme abbreviation 

Asex 

Asexual (gender identity), mid-sexual as opposed to male or female 

ACS 

Americnan Community Survey (source code)

AI 

American Indian (race-ethnicity) 

AN 

Alaskan Native (race-ethnicity) 

Avg 

Average, or mean (statistic) 

Bl 

Black or African American (race-ethnicity) 

Black 

Black or African American (race-ethnicity); Bl is the extreme abbreviation

BG 

Census Block Group (statistical area) 

Bel 

Below, or “and below”, “under the value of ” a numeric character 

Bis 

Bisexual (sexual orientation) 

Cd 

Code (case code) 

Cens 

Census (code), decennial Census, U.S. Census Bureau 

Combo 

Alone or in combination with one or more other races

Dist 

District (case code) 

E_ 

Estimate prefix, as opposed to a hard number, count or sum (ACS field prefix) 

Fe 

Female (gender identity, as opposed to male) 

FIPS 

Federal Information Processing Standard (case code) 

Fm 

Family (relationship) 

Geo 

Geographic (case code) 

GQ 

Group quarters (relationship) 

Hect 

Hectare, hectarea (area) 

HH 

Household (OccHU) 

HHr 

Householder 

His 

Hispanic or Latino (origin, race-ethnicity); HL is the extreme abbreviation 

Hisp 

Hispanic or Latino (origin, race-ethnicity); HL is the extreme abbreviation

HispLat 

Hispanic or Latino (origin, race-ethnicity); HL is the extreme abbreviation 

HL 

Hispanic or Latino (origin, race-ethnicity) 

HU 

Housing Units 

HW 

Husband and Wife, spousal (relationship); married couple

ID 

Identifier (case code) 

IntLat 

Internal Point Latitude, as opposed to shape centroid which may fall outside of the entity (Y-coordinate in decimal degrees); sometimes Ylat 

IntLon 

Internal Point Longitude, as opposed to shape centroid which may fall outside of the entity (X-coordinate in decimal degrees); sometimes Xlon

LGBTQ 

Lesbian or Gay or Bisexual or Transexual or Queer (sexual orientation minority grouping) 

Lon 

Long or longitude or longitudinal, to avoid the keyword “long” 

LWO

Living with Others (2 or more HH Size) 

LSAD 

Legal Statistical Area Description 

M_ 

Margin of Error prefix (ACS field prefix) 

Ma 

Male (gender identity, as opposed to female) 

Med 

Median (statistic) 

Mod 

Mode (statistic) or model (source code) 

Multi 

Multiple eg. Multifamily, MultiRacial

MultiRace 

Two or more races (race-ethnicity), or MR in extreme abbreviation 

NH 

Native Hawaiian (race-ethnicity) 

NHL 

Not of Hispanic or Latino Origin (origin, race-ethnicity) 

Nn 

Non 

Owner (tenure) 

OC 

Own Child (relationship)

Oc 

Occupied (Housing Unit) 

Occ 

Occupied (Housing Unit) 

OPI 

Other Pacific Islander (race-ethnicity) 

Ot 

Other 

Ownr 

Owner (tenure) 

P_ 

Percent prefix (in units of 100, ACS field positional identifier, as opposed to Pt, which is a part or rate or ratio or ration compared to a unit of one)

Pr_ 

Projection prefix, field positional identifier, ideally in conjunction with suffix indicating year and source of projection data) 

_P 

Plus, “and up”, “or greater”, “or larger”, “or more” (suffix to a numeric character)

P1_ 

Commissioner’s Precinct One (prefix to fieldname) 

P2_ 

Commissioner’s Precinct Two (prefix to fieldname) 

P3_ 

Commissioner’s Precinct Three (prefix to fieldname) 

P4_ 

Commissioner’s Precinct Four (prefix to fieldname) 

pAcre 

per Acre, which is 43,560 square feet, or one 640th of a square mile (area relationship)

pHect 

per Hectare, which is 100 meters x 100 meters, 10000 square meters, or one hundredth of a suqare kilometer (area relationship) 

pSqMi 

per Square Mile, which is 640 acres, or 27,878,400 square feet (43560*640)

Pl 

Place, includes city and Census Defined Place (CDP) in Texas (statistical area) 

PM_ 

Percent Margin of Error prefix (ACS field positional identifier) 

Pop 

Population 

_Pt_ 

Point, decimal (conjunction when used between numeric characters)

Pt_ 

Part, rate, ration or ratio prefix (compared to one unit, prefix to fieldname); partial unit  

Renter (tenure) 

Rc 

Race (race-ethnicity) 

Rel 

Relative, related (relationship) 

Rent 

Renter (tenure) 

Rt 

Rate, same at part prefix, ratio or ration (compared to one unit), as opposed to P_, prefix for a percentage compared to 100 units

Rur 

Rural or pastoral (area, subject to Farmland Protection Act if less than 0.75 buildings per acre) 

S_ 

Sample, number, count or sum prefix (this may be dropped unless needed for clarity)

SA 

South Asian (Indian, race-ethnicity) 

Sch 

School 

SFem 

Single Female (relationship) 

Sis 

Straight individual (sexual orientation) 

Sgl 

Single (relationship) 

SMal 

Single Male (relationship) 

SqFt 

Square Feet, U.S. square foot (area, prefix with “p” for area relationships, as in “pSqFt” for “per Square Foot”) (Square meters may be converted to square feet with the following formula: SqMet*10.7639 =SqFt)

SqMet 

Square Meters, international square meter (area, prefix with “p” for areal relationships, as in “pSqMet” for “per Square Meter”) (Square meters may be converted to acres with the following formula: SqMet*0.000247105 = Acres)

SqMi 

Square Miles, U.S. square mile (area, prefix with “p” for area relationships, as in “pSqMi” for “per Square Mile”) (Square meters may be converted to square miles with the following formula: SqMet*.0000003861 = SqMi)

Sz 

Size 

TAZ 

Traffic Analysis Zone (statistical area) 

Tr 

Census Tract (statistical area) 

Trans 

Transexual (sexual orientation)

Tot 

Total, universe 

Under (age prefix); also most extreme abbreviation of “Und” 

Und 

Under (age prefix); U is most extreme abbreviation 

_Up 

And Over, Plus (age or size suffix) 

Urb 

Urban or Urbanized (area) 

USD 

U.S. Dollars (substituted for “$”, prefixed with inflation base year if applicable)

Vot 

Voting-age (persons age 18 and over) 

Vac 

Vacancy or vacant (housing units) 

_w_ 

with (conjunction in field name) 

White 

White or Anglo (race-ethnicity); Wh as extreme abbreviation 

Yr 

Year(s, age)

  

  

Rule: 

If the abbreviation can be fully or partly spelled out within the 10-character limit of the old DBF field header limitations, including prefix/suffix, then that is preferred. E.g. NotHL instead of NHL, whereas NotHispLat allows no room for a prefix or suffix to be added.

Capitalization/Number/Punctuation Rule: 

UpperCamelCase, with the first letter of every word capitalized, allowing elimination of spaces and all punctuation except underscores, consistent with DBF 4.0+. Field names cannot begin with a number.

(Use UpperCamelCase, and the above abbreviations for classes common to the Census) 

 

From whence doth such craziness arise?

Part of what has informed my thinking about this over the years included datasets such as the example following. Actually, many predecessors came before this; the data houses that produced products from Census and other data sources were known under various corporate identities over time, but have largely now consolidated. I used some fieldnames used by Geolytics as an example below, since I’ve done some business with that firm recently.

Extended Basic Estimates from Geolytics

Extended Basic Estimates 2014 / 2019 /2024
for Harris County block groups
1-800-577-6717
(Geolytics, Inc., in Somerville, NJ: website at http://www.geolytics.com/USCensus,ExtendedEstimates,Data,Features,Products.asp).

Methodology they used:  http://www.geolytics.com/USCensus,Estimates-Projections,Data,Methodology,Products.asp

The following list of variables came with their products.

Geolytics used prefix “s” for summary file data (decennial Census), “e” for current year Estimate, a “p” for the 5-year Projection, “q” for the 10-year projection, and “r” for the 15-year projection. Eg:

Example Geographic Identifiers

AREAKEY 

Block Group FIPS Code 

AREANAME 

Block Group Name 

LAT 

Latitude 

LON 

Longitude 

SQMILES 

Square Miles 

STUSAB 

State Abbreviation 

STATECE 

State Census Code 

STATE 

State FIPS Code 

STNAME 

State Name 

REGION 

State Region Code 

DIVISION 

State Division Code 

COUNTY 

County FIPS Code 

CNTYNAM 

County Name

MACODE 

Metropolitan Area Code 

MANAME 

Metropolitan Area Name 

ZIP_CODE 

ZIP Code 

PONAME 

Post Office Name 

CITYNAME 

City Name 

CITYCODE 

City Code 

CBSANAME 

Core Based Statistical Area Name 

CBSACODE 

Core Based Statistical Area Code 

CBSATYPE 

Core Based Statistical Area Type

AREACODE 

Area Code 

Example Summary Data

STOTPOP 

Total estimated Population  

STOTCNPOP 

Total Census 2000 Population  

SPOPCHPCT 

Pop Change (per cent)  

SPOPDENS 

Population Density  

SPOP0_5 

Population age 0-5 (2010 

SPOP6_17 

Population age 6-17  

SPOP0_4 

Population 0-4  

SPOP5_9 

Population 5-9  

SPOP10_14 

Population 10-14  

SPOP15_29 

Population 15-20  

SPOP20_24 

Population 20-24  

SPOP25_29 

Population 25-29  

SPOP30_34 

Population 30-34  

SPOP35_39 

Population 35-39  

SPOP40_44 

Population 40-44  

SPOP45_49 

Population 45-49  

SPOP50_54 

Population 50-54 

SPOP55_59 

Population 55-59  

SPOP60_64 

Population 60-64  

SPOP65_69 

Population 65-69  

SPOP70_74 

Population 70-74  

SPOP75_79 

Population 75-79  

SPOP80_84 

Population 80-84  

SPOP85P

Population 85 plus  

SMEDAGE 

Median Age  

SPOPWA 

Total White Alone population  

SPOPBA 

Total Black Alone population  

SPOPNA 

Total Native Americans Alone population  

SPOPAA 

Total Asian Alone population  

SPOPPA 

Total Pacific Alone population  

SPOPR2 

Total 2 or more races population

SPOPHS 

Total Hispanic population  

SPOPWN 

Total White non-Hispanic population  

STOTMALES 

Total Males  

STOTFEMAL 

Total Females  

SPOPWAM 

Total White Males Alone  

SPOPBAM 

Total Black Males Alone  

SPOPNAM 

Total Native Americans Males Alone

SPOPAAM 

Total Asian Males Alone  

SPOPPAM 

Total Pacific Males Alone  

SPOPR2M 

Total 2 or more races Males  

SPOPHSM 

Total Hispanic Males  

SPOPWNM 

Total White Alone non-Hispanic Males  

SPOPWAF 

Total White Females Alone  

SPOPBAF 

Total Black Females Alone

SPOPNAF 

Total Native Americans Females Alone  

SPOPAAF 

Total Asian Females Alone  

SPOPPAF 

Total Pacific Females Alone  

SPOPR2F 

Total 2 or more races Females  

SPOPHSF 

Total Hispanic Females  

SPOPWNF 

Total White non-Hispanic Females

STOTHH 

Total estimated Households  

STOTCNSHH 

Total Census 2000 Households  

SHHCHGE 

Household Change  

SAVGHHSZE 

Average HH Size  

SONEPRSHH 

One Person Households  

STOTFAM 

Total Families  

STOTHU 

Total Housing Units  

SHUOWNER 

Owner  

SHURENTER 

Renter

SHUVACANT 

Vacant Housing Units  

SHUNDR10K 

Households w/ income under $10,000  

SH10_15 

HH w/ income $10,000-$14,999  

SH15_20 

HH w/ income $15,000-$19,999  

SH20_25 

HH w/ income $20,000-$24,999  

SH25_30 

HH w/ income $25,000-$29,999  

SH30_35 

HH w/ income $30,000-$34,999

SH35_40 

HH w/ income $35,000-$39,999  

SH40_45 

HH w/ income $40,000-$44,999  

SH45_50 

HH w/ income $45,000-$49,999  

SH50_60 

HH w/ income $50,000-$59,999  

SH60_75 

HH w/ income $60,000-$74,999  

SH75_100 

HH w/ income $75,000-$99,999  

SH100_125 

HH w/ income $100,000-$124,999  

SH125_150 

HH w/ income $125,000-$149,999  

SH150_200 

HH w/ income $150,000-$199,999  

SH200KP 

HH w/ income $200,000+  

SHMEDINC 

Median HH income  

SHAGGINC 

Aggregate HH Income  

SHAVGINC 

Average HH Income  

SPERCPINC

Per Capita Income  

Geolytics followed some of the C++ programmers’ customs by fully capitalizing all fieldnames and relying on code words such as H for Household and INC for Income undelimited due to shape file (.dbf) name space constraints. Using “S” as a prefix to denote summary data as opposed to “E” for current year estimate or “P, Q and R” for projected data informed my suggestion to use “E”stimate, “M”argin of error, and “P”ercent in my Census field name convention.

Options for projecting demographic data

Demographic Projections are generally not viewed as trustworthy in any dynamically vibrant area such as Los Angeles or Houston. These areas have differential natural increase among various subgroups with heavy both internal and external migration overlaid. If you wish to project data, I would suggest contacting a former state demographer for lessons, or better yet buying someone else’s plausibly deniable projected data! When my workplace looked into projected data for population over the age of 50 in the year prior to the 2010 Census a decade ago, this was my advice:

  1. Free data.  We contacted the office of the TX state demographer, Dr. Lloyd Potter.  Published data is projected at the county level.  No free information will reliably project the number of individuals aged 50+, especially for such a rapidly changing subarea of Harris County as Precinct 4.  A 2020 projection for all of Harris County from the State Data Center was developed as HarrisCountyProjection2020.xls

     

  2. Prepared data from a demographic data seller.  Geolytics, Inc. at 1-800-577-6717 can provide “Extended Basic Estimates 2014 / 2019 /2024” for either block groups, tracts, or ZIP codes within Harris County at a cost of $300.   After selecting the geographic elements that approximate Precinct 4 in a GIS, the answer to your question can be calculated by adding together the following variables, first for the 2014 estimate and then for the 2024 projection:
    1. Population 50-54
    2. Population 55-59
    3. Population 60-64
    4. Population 65-69
    5. Population 70-74
    6. Population 75-79
    7. Population 80-84
    8. Population 85 plus

       

  3. Expert projection prepared by a professional demographer at cost.  Dr. Potter may be willing to further discuss with you this option and/or some recommendations at 210-458-6530 or by email  at lloyd.potter@utsa.edu.  Please don’t be surprised if professional demographers offer to project figures no further than five years into the future with a reasonable certainty.

     

  4. Finally, you can try your own hand at predicting an uncertain future by reviewing past counts and estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau for the Census Tracts that approximate (though not perfectly) Precinct 4 as we begin to show below:

     

[Table 1]

U. S. Census Bureau ACS 5-Year Rolling Estimates for (Approximately) Harris County Precinct 4 based on all census tracts that are located within, in whole or in part.

 

Year       Persons Age 50+              Total Population

 

2011       254,493                                 1,049,811

 

2012       268,248                                 1,080,509

 

2013       280,888                                 1,107,919

Another example applied to block group data from a 5-year (2012-2016) ACS dataset:

Data Dictionary for BG_Precinct_Data_2016

Description 

1st 10 Char (dbf) 

OBJECTID 

Geographic Object ID 

OBJECTID 

STATEFP10 

State FIPS code 

STATEFP10 

COUNTYFP10 

County FIPS code 

COUNTYFP10 

TRACTCE10 

Tract FIPS code 

TRACTCE10 

BLKGRPCE10 

Block Group FIPS code 

BLKGRPCE10

GEOID10 

Geographic ID (2010 Census) 

GEOID10 

NAMELSAD10 

NAMELSAD (2010 Census) 

NAMELSAD10 

MTFCC10 

MTFCC (2010 Census) 

MTFCC10 

FUNCSTAT10 

Functional Status Code (2010 Census) 

FUNCSTAT10 

ALAND10 

Area Land in Square Meters (2010 Census) 

ALAND10 

AWATER10

Area Water in Square Meters (2010 Census) 

AWATER10 

INTPTLAT10 

Internal point latitude (2010 Census) 

INTPTLAT10 

INTPTLON10 

Internal point longitude (2010 Census) 

INTPTLON10 

FIPS 

Federal Information Processing Standards code 

FIPS 

TotPop 

Total Population , any race or origin

TotPop 

NotHL 

Population Not of Hispanic or Latino Origin 

NotHL 

HispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Origin Population 

HispLat 

WhiteAlone 

White alone, any origin 

WhiteAlone 

NHLWhiteAlone 

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin 

NHLWhiteAl

HLWhiteAlone 

White alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin 

HLWhiteAlo 

BlackAlone 

Black alone, any origin 

BlackAlone 

NHLBlackAlone 

Black alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin 

NHLBlackAl 

HLBlackAlone 

Black alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin 

HLBlackAlo

AIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin 

AIANNHOPIA 

NHLAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin

NHLAIANNHO 

HLAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin 

HLAIANNHOP 

AsianAlone 

Asian alone, any origin 

AsianAlone 

NHLAsianAlone 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin

NHLAsianAl 

HLAsianAlone 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin 

HLAsianAlo 

OtherAlone 

Other alone, any origin 

OtherAlone 

NHLOtherAlone 

Other alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin 

NHLOtherAl 

HLOtherAlone 

Other alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin

HLOtherAlo 

Multiracial 

Two or more races, of any origin 

Multiracia 

NHLMultiracial 

Two or more races, not of Hispanic or Latino origin 

NHLMultira 

HLMultiracial 

Two or more races, of Hispanic or Latino origin 

HLMultirac 

U18Pop 

Population under 18

U18Pop 

U18NotHL 

Population under 18 not of Hispanic or Latino Origin 

U18NotHL 

U18HispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Origin population under 18 

U18HispLat 

U18WhiteAlone 

White alone, any origin, under 18 

U18WhiteAl 

U18NHLWhiteAlone 

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18

U18NHLWhit 

U18HLWhiteAlone 

White alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18HLWhite 

U18BlackAlone 

Black alone, any origin, under 18 

U18BlackAl 

U18NHLBlackAlone 

Black alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18

U18NHLBlac 

U18HLBlackAlone 

Black alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18HLBlack 

U18AIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, under 18 

U18AIANNHO 

U18NHLAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18

U18NHLAIAN 

U18HLAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18

U18HLAIANN 

U18AsianAlone 

Asian alone, any origin, under 18 

U18AsianAl 

U18NHLAsianAlone 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18NHLAsia 

U18HLAsianAlone 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18HLAsian

U18OtherAlone 

Other alone, any origin, under 18 

U18OtherAl 

U18NHLOtherAlone 

Other alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18NHLOthe 

U18HLOtherAlone 

Other alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18HLOther 

U18Multiracial 

Two or more races, of any origin, under 18

U18Multira 

U18NHLMultiracial 

Two or more races, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18NHLMult 

U18HLMultiracial 

Two or more races, of Hispanic or Latino origin, under 18 

U18HLMulti 

VotPop 

Population age 18 or older

VotPop 

VotNotHL 

Population age 18 or older not of Hispanic or Latino origin 

VotNotHL 

VotHispLat 

Population age 18 or older of Hispanic or Latino origin 

VotHispLat 

VotWhiteAlone 

White alone, any origin, age 18 or older 

VotWhiteAl 

VotNHLWhiteAlone

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotNHLWhit 

VotHLWhiteAlone 

White alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotHLWhite 

VotBlackAlone 

Black alone, any origin, age 18 or older 

VotBlackAl 

VotNHLBlackAlone 

Black alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older

VotNHLBlac 

VotHLBlackAlone 

Black alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotHLBlack 

VotAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, age 18 or older

VotAIANNHO 

VotNHLAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotNHLAIAN 

VotHLAIANNHOPIAlone 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older

VotHLAIANN 

VotAsianAlone 

Asian alone, any origin, age 18 or older 

VotAsianAl 

VotNHLAsianAlone 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older

VotNHLAsia 

VotHLAsianAlone 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotHLAsian 

VotOtherAlone 

Other alone, any origin, age 18 or older 

VotOtherAl 

VotNHLOtherAlone 

Other alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older

VotNHLOthe 

VotHLOtherAlone 

Other alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotHLOther 

VotMultiracial 

Two or more races, of any origin, age 18 or older 

VotMultira 

VotNHLMultiracial 

Two or more races, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older

VotNHLMult 

VotHLMultiracial 

Two or more races, of Hispanic or Latino origin, age 18 or older 

VotHLMulti 

HousingUnits 

Total Housing Units 

HousingUni 

OccupiedHU 

Occupied Housing Units 

OccupiedHU 

VacantHU 

Vacant Housing Units 

VacantHU 

HHPop 

Persons living in households 

HHPop 

AvgHHSize 

Average household size 

AvgHHSize 

GQPop 

Persons living in group quarters 

GQPop 

GQInstitutionalized 

Persons living in institutionalized group quarters 

GQInstitut 

GQCorrectionalFacilities 

Persons living in correctional facilities group quarters

GQCorrecti 

GQJuvenileFacilities 

Persons living in juvenile facilities group quarters 

GQJuvenile 

GQNursingSNIF 

Persons living in nursing facilities group quarters 

GQNursingS 

GQOtherInstitutional 

Persons living in other group quarters

GQOtherIns 

GQNoninstitutionalized 

Persons living in noninstitutionalized group quarters 

GQNoninsti 

GQCollegeUniversity 

Persons living in college facilities group quarters 

GQCollegeU 

GQMilitaryQuarters 

Persons living in military facilities group quarters

GQMilitary 

GQOtherNoninstitutional 

Persons living in other group quarters 

GQOtherNon 

TrGeoID10 

Tract Census FIPS Code (2010 Census vintage), six characters 

TrGeoID10 

GEOID 

Geographic identifier (2010 Census vintage), retained from table join

GEOID 

TotPop10 

Total Population (2010 Census) 

TotPop10 

Age55Up 

Persons aged 55 years or older (2010 Census) 

Age55Up 

STBGGEOID 

State USA abbreviation concatenated with Tract and Block Group Geographic identifiers (2010 Census vintage), for table joins that use this structure

STBGGEOID 

geoname 

Geographic name (Block Group, Tract, and County) 

geoname 

stusab 

Postal state code abbreviation, 2 alpha characters 

stusab 

countyname 

County name (County, State USA) 

countyname 

state 

State FIPS code 

state 

county 

County FIPS code 

county 

tract 

Tract FIPS code 

tract 

blkgrp 

Blkgrp FIPS code 

blkgrp 

low 

Low income persons (HUD est), at or below 50% Area Median Income 

low 

lowmod 

Low-Mod income persons (HUD est.) at or below 80% Area Median Income. The numerator in a Low-Mod income percentage.

lowmod 

LMMI 

Low-Mod-Middle income persons (HUD est.) at or below 120% Area Median Income 

LMMI 

lowmoduniv 

Low-Mod income persons universe (HUD est.), similar to persons in households with an estimable income. The denominator in a Low-Mod income percentage.

lowmoduniv 

lowmod_pct 

Low-Mod income percentage (HUD est.) calculated from Low-Mod income persons divided by Low-Mod persons universe 

lowmod_pct 

LMBA 

Low-Mod income benefit area flag. Qualified block groups contain “1” in this field. 1 denotes a block group with 51% or more low to moderate income persons.

LMBA 

Pct1Percent 

Percent of land area within Precinct 1, used as a multipier in Precinct demographic calculations 

Pct1Percen 

Pct2Percent

Percent of land area within Precinct 2, used as a multipier in Precinct demographic calculations 

Pct2Percen 

Pct3Percent 

Percent of land area within Precinct 3, used as a multipier in Precinct demographic calculations 

Pct3Percen 

Pct4Percent 

Percent of land area within Precinct 4, used as a multipier in Precinct demographic calculations

Pct4Percen 

GeoID2_dbl 

Geographic identifier (2010 Census vintage), double (numeric) data format 

GeoID2_dbl 

P1Tot 

Total Population in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1Tot 

P1STotPop2010 

Total Population in 2010 Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1STotPop2 

P1ETotPop2014 

Total Population in 2014 Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1ETotPop2 

P1ETotPopChg2010_2014 

Population Change 2010 to 2014 in Commission Precinct 1 

P1ETotPopC 

P1ETot60Plus 

Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1ETot60Pl 

P1MTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MTot60Pl 

P1PTot60Plus 

Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PTot60Pl 

P1MPTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1MPTot60P 

P1PDisability 

Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 1 

P1PDisabil 

P1MPDisability 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 1

P1MPDisabi 

P1EDisability 

Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 1 

P1EDisabil 

P1MDisability 

Margin of Error for Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 1 

P1MDisabil 

P1EMedAge 

Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 1 

P1EMedAge

P1MMedAge 

Margin of Error for Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 1 

P1MMedAge 

P1EFemPop 

Female population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1EFemPop 

P1MFemPop 

Margin of Error for Female population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1MFemPop 

P1PFemPop

Percent Female population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1PFemPop 

P1EMalPop 

Male population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1EMalPop 

P1MMalPop 

Margin of Error for Male population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1MMalPop 

P1PMalPop 

Percent Male population in Commission Precinct 1

P1PMalPop 

P1EMinority 

Minority population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1EMinorit 

P1MMinority 

Margin of Error for Minority population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1MMinorit 

P1PMinority 

Percent Minority population in Commission Precinct 1 

P1PMinorit

P1EAvgHHSz 

Average household size in Commission Precinct 1 

P1EAvgHHSz 

P1MAvgHHSz 

Margin of Error for Average household size in Commission Precinct 1 

P1MAvgHHSz 

P1PBelowPoverty 

Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 1 

P1PBelowPo

P1MPBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 1 

P1MPBelowP 

P1EBelowPoverty 

Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 1 

P1EBelowPo 

P1MBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 1

P1MBelowPo 

P1EOver25Yrs 

Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EOver25Y 

P1MOver25Yrs 

Margin of Error for Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1MOver25Y 

P1EEduAtLTHS 

Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EEduAtLT 

P1MEduAtLTHS 

Margin of Error for Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1MEduAtLT 

P1PEduAtLTHS 

Percent Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PEduAtLT 

P1EEdAtHSGED 

Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EEdAtHSG

P1MEdAtHSGED 

Margin of Error for Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MEdAtHSG 

P1PEdAtHSGED 

Percent Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PEdAtHSG

P1EEduAtSCPlus 

Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EEduAtSC 

P1MEduAtSCPlus 

Margin of Error for Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MEduAtSC

P1PEduAtSCPlus 

Percent Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PEduAtSC 

P1EHispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EHispLat 

P1MHispLat 

Margin of Error for Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1MHispLat 

P1PHispLat 

Percent Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PHispLat 

P1ENHLWhA 

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1ENHLWhA 

P1MNHLWhA 

Margin of Error for White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1MNHLWhA 

P1PNHLWhA 

Percent White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PNHLWhA 

P1ENHLBlA 

Black alone, any origin in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1ENHLBlA 

P1MNHLBlA 

Black alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MNHLBlA 

P1PNHLBlA 

Black alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PNHLBlA 

P1ENHLAsA 

Asian alone, any origin in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1ENHLAsA 

P1MNHLAsA 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MNHLAsA 

P1PNHLAsA 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PNHLAsA 

P1EOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1EOther 

P1MOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1MOther 

P1POther 

American Indian and Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1POther 

P1ETotHH 

Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1ETotHH 

P1MTotHH 

Margin of Error for Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MTotHH 

P1EHHwU18 

Households with persons aged under 18 years

P1EHHwU18 

P1MHHwU18 

Margin of Error for Households with persons aged under 18 years 

P1MHHwU18 

P1PHHwU18 

Percent Households with persons aged under 18 years in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1PHHwU18 

P1E0_30KUSDHHI 

Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1E0_30KUS 

P1M0_30KUSDHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1M0_30KUS 

P1P0_30KUSDHHI 

Percent Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 1 in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1P0_30KUS 

P1E30_MAHHI 

Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1E30_MAHH 

P1M50_MAHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1M50_MAHH 

P1P50_MAHHI 

Percent Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1P50_MAHH 

P1PBelMedHHInc 

Percent of households with income at or below median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1PBelMedH 

P1ESFHU 

Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1ESFHU 

P1MSFHU 

Margin of Error for Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MSFHU 

P1PSFHU 

Percent Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1PSFHU 

P1EMFHU 

Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EMFHU 

P1MMFHU 

Margin of Error for Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MMFHU 

P1PMFHU 

Percent Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1PMFHU 

P1EMHHU 

Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1EMHHU 

P1MMHHU 

Margin of Error for Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1 

P1MMHHU 

P1PMHHU 

Percent Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 1

P1PMHHU 

P2Tot 

Total Population in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2Tot 

P2STotPop2010 

Total Population in 2010 Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2STotPop2 

P2ETotPop2014 

Total Population in 2014 Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2ETotPop2 

P2ETotPopChg2010_2014

Population Change 2010 to 2014 in Commission Precinct 2 

P2ETotPopC 

P2ETot60Plus 

Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2ETot60Pl 

P2MTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MTot60Pl 

P2PTot60Plus

Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PTot60Pl 

P2MPTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MPTot60P 

P2PDisability 

Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 2

P2PDisabil 

P2MPDisability 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 2 

P2MPDisabi 

P2EDisability 

Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 2 

P2EDisabil 

P2MDisability 

Margin of Error for Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 2

P2MDisabil 

P2EMedAge 

Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 2 

P2EMedAge 

P2MMedAge 

Margin of Error for Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 2 

P2MMedAge 

P2EFemPop 

Female population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2EFemPop

P2MFemPop 

Margin of Error for Female population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2MFemPop 

P2PFemPop 

Percent Female population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2PFemPop 

P2EMalPop 

Male population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2EMalPop 

P2MMalPop 

Margin of Error for Male population in Commission Precinct 2

P2MMalPop 

P2PMalPop 

Percent Male population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2PMalPop 

P2EMinority 

Minority population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2EMinorit 

P2MMinority 

Margin of Error for Minority population in Commission Precinct 2

P2MMinorit 

P2PMinority 

Percent Minority population in Commission Precinct 2 

P2PMinorit 

P2EAvgHHSz 

Average household size in Commission Precinct 2 

P2EAvgHHSz 

P2MAvgHHSz 

Margin of Error for Average household size in Commission Precinct 2

P2MAvgHHSz 

P2PBelowPoverty 

Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 2 

P2PBelowPo 

P2MPBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 2 

P2MPBelowP 

P2EBelowPoverty 

Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 2

P2EBelowPo 

P2MBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 2 

P2MBelowPo 

P2EOver25Yrs 

Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2EOver25Y

P2MOver25Yrs 

Margin of Error for Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MOver25Y 

P2EEduAtLTHS 

Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2EEduAtLT 

P2MEduAtLTHS

Margin of Error for Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MEduAtLT 

P2PEduAtLTHS 

Percent Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PEduAtLT 

P2EEdAtHSGED

Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2EEdAtHSG 

P2MEdAtHSGED 

Margin of Error for Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MEdAtHSG 

P2PEdAtHSGED 

Percent Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PEdAtHSG 

P2EEduAtSCPlus 

Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2EEduAtSC 

P2MEduAtSCPlus 

Margin of Error for Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2MEduAtSC 

P2PEduAtSCPlus 

Percent Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PEduAtSC 

P2EHispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2EHispLat 

P2MHispLat 

Margin of Error for Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MHispLat 

P2PHispLat 

Percent Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PHispLat 

P2ENHLWhA

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2ENHLWhA 

P2MNHLWhA 

Margin of Error for White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MNHLWhA 

P2PNHLWhA 

Percent White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2PNHLWhA 

P2ENHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, any origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2ENHLBlA 

P2MNHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MNHLBlA 

P2PNHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PNHLBlA 

P2ENHLAsA 

Asian alone, any origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2ENHLAsA 

P2MNHLAsA 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2MNHLAsA 

P2PNHLAsA 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PNHLAsA 

P2EOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone, any origin, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2EOther 

P2MOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2MOther 

P2POther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2POther 

P2ETotHH 

Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2ETotHH 

P2MTotHH 

Margin of Error for Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MTotHH 

P2EHHwU18 

Households with persons aged under 18 years 

P2EHHwU18 

P2MHHwU18 

Margin of Error for Households with persons aged under 18 years

P2MHHwU18 

P2PHHwU18 

Percent Households with persons aged under 18 years in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PHHwU18 

P2E0_30KUSDHHI 

Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2E0_30KUS 

P2M0_30KUSDHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2M0_30KUS 

P2P0_30KUSDHHI 

Percent Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 2 in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2P0_30KUS 

P2E30_MAHHI 

Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2E30_MAHH 

P2M50_MAHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2M50_MAHH 

P2P50_MAHHI 

Percent Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2P50_MAHH 

P2PBelMedHHInc 

Percent of households with income at or below median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2PBelMedH 

P2ESFHU 

Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2ESFHU 

P2MSFHU 

Margin of Error for Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MSFHU 

P2PSFHU 

Percent Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2PSFHU 

P2EMFHU 

Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2EMFHU 

P2MMFHU 

Margin of Error for Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MMFHU 

P2PMFHU 

Percent Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2

P2PMFHU 

P2EMHHU 

Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2EMHHU 

P2MMHHU 

Margin of Error for Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2MMHHU 

P2PMHHU 

Percent Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 2 

P2PMHHU

P3Tot 

Total Population in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3Tot 

P3STotPop2010 

Total Population in 2010 Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3STotPop2 

P3ETotPop2014 

Total Population in 2014 Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3ETotPop2 

P3ETotPopChg2010_2014 

Population Change 2010 to 2014 in Commission Precinct 3

P3ETotPopC 

P3ETot60Plus 

Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3ETot60Pl 

P3MTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MTot60Pl 

P3PTot60Plus 

Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3PTot60Pl 

P3MPTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MPTot60P 

P3PDisability 

Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 3 

P3PDisabil 

P3MPDisability 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 3

P3MPDisabi 

P3EDisability 

Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 3 

P3EDisabil 

P3MDisability 

Margin of Error for Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 3 

P3MDisabil

P3EMedAge 

Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 3 

P3EMedAge 

P3MMedAge 

Margin of Error for Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 3 

P3MMedAge 

P3EFemPop 

Female population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3EFemPop 

P3MFemPop 

Margin of Error for Female population in Commission Precinct 3

P3MFemPop 

P3PFemPop 

Percent Female population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3PFemPop 

P3EMalPop 

Male population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3EMalPop 

P3MMalPop 

Margin of Error for Male population in Commission Precinct 3

P3MMalPop 

P3PMalPop 

Percent Male population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3PMalPop 

P3EMinority 

Minority population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3EMinorit 

P3MMinority 

Margin of Error for Minority population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3MMinorit 

P3PMinority

Percent Minority population in Commission Precinct 3 

P3PMinorit 

P3EAvgHHSz 

Average household size in Commission Precinct 3 

P3EAvgHHSz 

P3MAvgHHSz 

Margin of Error for Average household size in Commission Precinct 3 

P3MAvgHHSz 

P3PBelowPoverty 

Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 3

P3PBelowPo 

P3MPBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 3 

P3MPBelowP 

P3EBelowPoverty 

Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 3

P3EBelowPo 

P3MBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 3 

P3MBelowPo 

P3EOver25Yrs 

Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3EOver25Y 

P3MOver25Yrs 

Margin of Error for Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3MOver25Y 

P3EEduAtLTHS 

Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3EEduAtLT 

P3MEduAtLTHS 

Margin of Error for Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3MEduAtLT 

P3PEduAtLTHS 

Percent Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PEduAtLT 

P3EEdAtHSGED 

Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3EEdAtHSG 

P3MEdAtHSGED 

Margin of Error for Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MEdAtHSG 

P3PEdAtHSGED 

Percent Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3PEdAtHSG 

P3EEduAtSCPlus 

Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3EEduAtSC 

P3MEduAtSCPlus 

Margin of Error for Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3MEduAtSC 

P3PEduAtSCPlus 

Percent Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PEduAtSC 

P3EHispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3EHispLat 

P3MHispLat 

Margin of Error for Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MHispLat 

P3PHispLat 

Percent Hispanic or Latino Population in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PHispLat 

P3ENHLWhA 

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3ENHLWhA 

P3MNHLWhA 

Margin of Error for White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MNHLWhA 

P3PNHLWhA 

Percent White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3PNHLWhA 

P3ENHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, any origin in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3ENHLBlA 

P3MNHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MNHLBlA 

P3PNHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3PNHLBlA 

P3ENHLAsA 

Asian alone, any origin in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3ENHLAsA 

P3MNHLAsA 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MNHLAsA 

P3PNHLAsA 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PNHLAsA 

P3EOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone, any origin, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3EOther 

P3MOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MOther 

P3POther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3POther 

P3ETotHH 

Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3ETotHH 

P3MTotHH 

Margin of Error for Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MTotHH 

P3EHHwU18 

Households with persons aged under 18 years 

P3EHHwU18 

P3MHHwU18 

Margin of Error for Households with persons aged under 18 years

P3MHHwU18 

P3PHHwU18 

Percent Households with persons aged under 18 years in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PHHwU18 

P3E0_30KUSDHHI 

Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3E0_30KUS 

P3M0_30KUSDHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3M0_30KUS 

P3P0_30KUSDHHI 

Percent Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commissioner Precinct 3 in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3P0_30KUS 

P3E30_MAHHI 

Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3E30_MAHH 

P3M50_MAHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3M50_MAHH 

P3P50_MAHHI

Percent Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3P50_MAHH 

P3PBelMedHHInc 

Percent of households with income at or below median area household income in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PBelMedH

P3ESFHU 

Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3ESFHU 

P3MSFHU 

Margin of Error for Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MSFHU 

P3PSFHU 

Percent Single Family housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PSFHU 

P3EMFHU

Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3EMFHU 

P3MMFHU 

Margin of Error for Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MMFHU 

P3PMFHU 

Percent Multifamily housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PMFHU 

P3EMHHU 

Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3

P3EMHHU 

P3MMHHU 

Margin of Error for Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3MMHHU 

P3PMHHU 

Percent Mobile home housing units in Commissioner Precinct 3 

P3PMHHU 

P4Tot 

Total Population in Commission Precinct 4

P4Tot 

P4STotPop2010 

Total Population in 2010 Commission Precinct 4 

P4STotPop2 

P4ETotPop2014 

Total Population in 2014 Commission Precinct 4 

P4ETotPop2 

P4ETotPopChg2010_2014 

Population Change 2010 to 2014 in Commission Precinct 4 

P4ETotPopC

P4ETot60Plus 

Persons aged 60 plus in Commission Precinct 4 

P4ETot60Pl 

P4MTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Persons aged 60 plus in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MTot60Pl 

P4PTot60Plus 

Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PTot60Pl 

P4MPTot60Plus

Margin of Error for Percent Persons aged 60 plus in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MPTot60P 

P4PDisability 

Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PDisabil 

P4MPDisability 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 4

P4MPDisabi 

P4EDisability 

Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EDisabil 

P4MDisability 

Margin of Error for Persons with disability in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MDisabil 

P4EMedAge 

Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 4

P4EMedAge 

P4MMedAge 

Margin of Error for Median age of persons in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MMedAge 

P4EFemPop 

Female population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EFemPop 

P4MFemPop 

Margin of Error for Female population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MFemPop

P4PFemPop 

Percent Female population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PFemPop 

P4EMalPop 

Male population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EMalPop 

P4MMalPop 

Margin of Error for Male population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MMalPop 

P4PMalPop 

Percent Male population in Commission Precinct 4

P4PMalPop 

P4EMinority 

Minority population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EMinorit 

P4MMinority 

Margin of Error for Minority population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MMinorit 

P4PMinority 

Percent Minority population in Commission Precinct 4

P4PMinorit 

P4EAvgHHSz 

Average household size in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EAvgHHSz 

P4MAvgHHSz 

Margin of Error for Average household size in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MAvgHHSz 

P4PBelowPoverty 

Percent Persons below poverty level in Commission Precinct 4

P4PBelowPo 

P4MPBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 4 

P4MPBelowP 

P4EBelowPoverty 

Persons below poverty level in Commissioners Precinct 4 

P4EBelowPo 

P4MBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Persons below poverty level in Commission Precinct 4

P4MBelowPo 

P4EOver25Yrs 

Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EOver25Y 

P4MOver25Yrs 

Margin of Error for Education universe, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4

P4MOver25Y 

P4EEduAtLTHS 

Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EEduAtLT 

P4MEduAtLTHS 

Margin of Error for Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4

P4MEduAtLT 

P4PEduAtLTHS 

Percent Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PEduAtLT 

P4EEdAtHSGED 

Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EEdAtHSG

P4MEdAtHSGED 

Margin of Error for Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MEdAtHSG 

P4PEdAtHSGED 

Percent Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PEdAtHSG

P4EEduAtSCPlus 

Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EEduAtSC 

P4MEduAtSCPlus 

Margin of Error for Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MEduAtSC 

P4PEduAtSCPlus

Percent Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PEduAtSC 

P4EHispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EHispLat 

P4MHispLat 

Margin of Error for Hispanic or Latino Population in Commission Precinct 4

P4MHispLat 

P4PHispLat 

Percent Hispanic or Latino Population in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PHispLat 

P4ENHLWhA 

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4ENHLWhA 

P4MNHLWhA 

Margin of Error for White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4

P4MNHLWhA 

P4PNHLWhA 

Percent White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PNHLWhA 

P4ENHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, any origin in Commission Precinct 4

P4ENHLBlA 

P4MNHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MNHLBlA 

P4PNHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PNHLBlA 

P4ENHLAsA

Asian alone, any origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4ENHLAsA 

P4MNHLAsA 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MNHLAsA 

P4PNHLAsA 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PNHLAsA 

P4EOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone, any origin, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EOther 

P4MOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commission Precinct 4

P4MOther 

P4POther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races in Commission Precinct 4

P4POther 

P4ETotHH 

Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4ETotHH 

P4MTotHH 

Margin of Error for Households, or Occupied Housing Units in Commission Precinct 4

P4MTotHH 

P4EHHwU18 

Households with persons aged under 18 years in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EHHwU18 

P4MHHwU18 

Margin of Error for Households with persons aged under 18 years in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MHHwU18 

P4PHHwU18 

Percent Households with persons aged under 18 years in Commission Precinct 4

P4PHHwU18 

P4E0_30KUSDHHI 

Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commission Precinct 4 

P4E0_30KUS 

P4M0_30KUSDHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commission Precinct 4

P4M0_30KUS 

P4P0_30KUSDHHI 

Percent Households with income between zero and $30,000 in Commission Precinct 4 in Commission Precinct 4 

P4P0_30KUS 

P4E30_MAHHI 

Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commission Precinct 4

P4E30_MAHH 

P4M50_MAHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commission Precinct 4 

P4M50_MAHH 

P4P50_MAHHI 

Percent Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income in Commission Precinct 4

P4P50_MAHH 

P4PBelMedHHInc 

Percent of households with income at or below median area household income in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PBelMedH 

P4ESFHU 

Single Family housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4ESFHU 

P4MSFHU

Margin of Error for Single Family housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4MSFHU 

P4PSFHU 

Percent Single Family housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PSFHU 

P4EMFHU 

Multifamily housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EMFHU 

P4MMFHU 

Margin of Error for Multifamily housing units in Commission Precinct 4

P4MMFHU 

P4PMFHU 

Percent Multifamily housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PMFHU 

P4EMHHU 

Mobile home housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4EMHHU 

P4MMHHU 

Margin of Error for Mobile home housing units in Commission Precinct 4

P4MMHHU 

P4PMHHU 

Percent Mobile home housing units in Commission Precinct 4 

P4PMHHU 

GeoID 

Geographic ID concatenating a 7-character numeral with “US” to identify the Census Bureau and then a FIPS code identifier that zooms to the unique geography to which the figure applies.

GeoID 

GeoID2 

Geographic ID 2 – this is the FIPS code portion of the GeoID 

GeoID2 

GeoDesc 

Geographic verbal description 

GeoDesc 

S2010Pop 

Total Population in 2010  

S2010Pop 

E2014Pop 

Total Population in 2014

E2014Pop 

E10_14PopChg 

Population Change 2010 to 2014  

E10_14PopC 

ETot60Plus 

Persons aged 60 plus  

ETot60Plus 

MTot60Plus 

Margin of Error for Persons aged 60 plus  

MTot60Plus 

PTot60Plus 

Percent Persons aged 60 plus  

PTot60Plus 

MPTot60Plus

Margin of Error for Percent Persons aged 60 plus  

MPTot60Plu 

PDisability 

Percent Persons with disability  

PDisabilit 

MPDisability 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons with disability  

MPDisabili 

EDisability 

Persons with disability  

EDisabilit

MDisability 

Margin of Error for Persons with disability  

MDisabilit 

EMedAge 

Median age of persons  

EMedAge 

MMedAge 

Margin of Error for Median age of persons  

MMedAge 

EFemPop 

Female population  

EFemPop 

MFemPop 

Margin of Error for Female population

MFemPop 

PFemPop 

Percent Female population  

PFemPop 

EMalPop 

Male population  

EMalPop 

MMalPop 

Margin of Error for Male population  

MMalPop 

PMalPop 

Percent Male population  

PMalPop 

EMinority 

Minority population  

EMinority 

MMinority 

Margin of Error for Minority population  

MMinority 

PMinority 

Percent Minority population  

PMinority 

EAvgHHSz 

Average household size  

EAvgHHSz 

MAvgHHSz 

Margin of Error for Average household size  

MAvgHHSz 

PBelowPoverty 

Percent Persons below poverty level

PBelowPove 

MPBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Percent Persons below poverty level  

MPBelowPov 

EBelowPoverty 

Persons below poverty level  

EBelowPove 

MBelowPoverty 

Margin of Error for Persons below poverty level  

MBelowPove 

EOver25Yrs 

Education universe, people age 25 years and older

EOver25Yrs 

MOver25Yrs 

Margin of Error for Education universe, people age 25 years and older  

MOver25Yrs 

EEduAtLTHS 

Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older  

EEduAtLTHS 

MEduAtLTHS 

Margin of Error for Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older

MEduAtLTHS 

PEduAtLTHS 

Percent Education less than High School, people age 25 years and older  

PEduAtLTHS 

EEdAtHSGED 

Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older

EEdAtHSGED 

MEdAtHSGED 

Margin of Error for Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older  

MEdAtHSGED 

PEdAtHSGED 

Percent Education High School or GED, people age 25 years and older  

PEdAtHSGED 

EEduAtSCPlus 

Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older

EEduAtSCPl 

MEduAtSCPlus 

Margin of Error for Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older  

MEduAtSCPl 

PEduAtSCPlus 

Percent Education some college or more, people age 25 years and older  

PEduAtSCPl

EHispLat 

Hispanic or Latino Population  

EHispLat 

MHispLat 

Margin of Error for Hispanic or Latino Population  

MHispLat 

PHispLat 

Percent Hispanic or Latino Population  

PHispLat 

ESHLWhA 

White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin  

ESHLWhA 

MSHLWhA

Margin of Error for White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin  

MSHLWhA 

PSHLWhA 

Percent White alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin  

PSHLWhA 

ESHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, any origin  

ESHLBlA 

MSHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin

MSHLBlA 

PSHLBlA 

Black or African American alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin  

PSHLBlA 

ESHLAsA 

Asian alone, any origin  

ESHLAsA 

MSHLAsA 

Asian alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin  

MSHLAsA 

PSHLAsA 

Asian alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin

PSHLAsA 

EOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone, any origin, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, any origin, some other race or 2 or more races  

EOther 

MOther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, not of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races

MOther 

POther 

American Indian and Alaska Native alone or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, of Hispanic or Latino origin, some other race or 2 or more races

POther 

ETotHH 

Households, or Occupied Housing Units  

ETotHH 

MTotHH 

Margin of Error for Households, or Occupied Housing Units  

MTotHH 

EHHwU18 

Households with persons aged under 18 years 

EHHwU18

MHHwU18 

Margin of Error for Households with persons aged under 18 years 

MHHwU18 

PHHwU18 

Percent Households with persons aged under 18 years  

PHHwU18 

E0_30KUSDHHI 

Households with income between zero and $30,000  

E0_30KUSDH 

M0_30KUSDHHI 

Margin of Error for Households with income between zero and $30,000

M0_30KUSDH 

P0_30KUSDHHI 

Percent Households with income between zero and $30,000  

P0_30KUSDH 

E30_MAHHI 

Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income  

E30_MAHHI 

M50_MAHHI

Margin of Error for Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income  

M50_MAHHI 

P50_MAHHI 

Percent Households with income between $30,000 and median area household income  

P50_MAHHI 

PBelMedHHInc 

Percent of households with income at or below median area household income

PBelMedHHI 

ESFHU 

Single Family housing units  

ESFHU 

MSFHU 

Margin of Error for Single Family housing units  

MSFHU 

PSFHU 

Percent Single Family housing units  

PSFHU 

EMFHU 

Multifamily housing units  

EMFHU

MMFHU 

Margin of Error for Multifamily housing units  

MMFHU 

PMFHU 

Percent Multifamily housing units  

PMFHU 

EMHHU 

Mobile home housing units  

EMHHU 

MMHHU 

Margin of Error for Mobile home housing units  

MMHHU 

PMHHU 

Percent Mobile home housing units

PMHHU 

Shape_Length 

Machine-calculated shape perimeter 

Shape_Leng 

Shape_Area 

Machine-calculated shape area 

Shape_Area 

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Tricks and Traditional Whiz-dim

One night I dreamed a dream.

One night I dreamed a dream after my spouse’s passing.

As I walked along a deserted beach alone with my thoughts,

The big sky flashed memories from our life. Beautiful ones, biter ones, one after the next.

Upon each memory, I imagined our two sets of footprints accompanied me along the way,

One belonging to me and one to my dear departed love.

 

After a lengthy reverie of our life’s times had passed before my eyes,

I looked back toward that long trail of footprints that marked our path together.

And obliterating our partnered steps along the journey of life,

And especially at those most difficult and saddest times,

A billion footprints could be found all blurred together.

 

This really troubled me now, so I questioned myself about it.

“How can it be, that as I’ve reviewed the times we’d lived,

That special path I thought we’d left in life’s sands,

I noticed that during the saddest and most burdensome times of our life,

Billions of footprints stepped all over our own.

I’d considered my life’s path far more special, precious and unique.”

 

Then answered the wind, “My precious child, you are so loved!

The trials and testing life offered brought your focus necessarily to yourself.

But those billions of footprints that you see,

Belong to a billion unknown far and wide who creatively walked with you and carried you through.

Be sure to thank those you meet along your path today and every day.”

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Tricks and Traditional Whiz-dim

Memo to File

The accumulation of human impacts on the environment continues apace. Most of these impacts are minor and unintentional but lead to global changes being observed in the ocean and atmosphere all around the planet. The most important of such minor impacts related to the proposed demolition project is refrigerant management. On his site visit near the end of 2011, Harris County Senior Planner Paul Suckow found rapid and pervasive unsanctioned salvaging of all kinds of materials from Brandywood, a doomed 698-unit apartment complex which closed only 12 days before having experienced severe repetitive flooding already at the time of Hurricane Ike, including looting of iron storm drain inlet covers, plumbing fixtures and appliances, and exterior fixtures. With the large number of central air conditioning condenser units in a facility of 698 dwelling units, a serious threat of refrigerant release existed on the site. Ad-hoc salvaging crews appeared interested in copper and other metals for their recycling value and may not have been aware of the risks involved with releasing Freon to the atmosphere.

Health risks of direct contact: Exposure to refrigerant can cause refrigerant poisoning. Something as mild as breathing near an open container or a small spill on your hand is generally harmless, however minor symptoms such as dizziness, headache, coughing and eye, nose and throat irritation may occur. When refrigerant is deeply inhaled, it can cut of oxygen to your lungs and cells. Direct exposure within a confined space, or abuse of the substance as a drug, can cause vomiting, chemical burn, heart palpitation, difficulty breathing and even loss of consciousness.

Health risks of release: Refrigerant chemicals such as Freon accumulate in the air and most air conditioners use a chemical called Freon as a refrigerant. Freon is a stable, nonflammable, moderately toxic gas that is tasteless and mostly odorless. Freon contains chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are known to deplete the ozone high in the atmosphere. The ozone that is formed or destroyed high in the atmosphere is essential to shield all life on the planet from the harmful ultraviolet radiation which would cause cell tissue destruction if it reached the biosphere in higher doses. Particular danger is interference with genetic transmission in living things.

Even a small amount of refrigerant release is dangerous to the environment because chemicals like Freon are man-made, not natural, and its components perform very efficiently as persistent catalysts in reactions which destroy ozone gas many times its weight and volume. CFCs are also more than ten thousand times more heat-trapping than carbon dioxide, the main gas creating vast and multiple human and environmental threats due to global heating and climate changes. It is essential that unprofessional salvagers take care not to release any refrigerant gas from refrigerators or air conditioners in attempts to gain salvageable material. Rapid deployment of trained and licensed demolition professionals may prevent inadvertent and cumulatively dangerous releases of refrigerant gases.

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Scientipic Whiz-Dim

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)

FROM AN ARTICLE ORIGINALLY WRITTEN FOR BRITANNICA BY:

 Kara Rogers

Alternative Title: HFC

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), any of several organic compounds composed of hydrogenfluorine, and carbon. HFCs are produced synthetically and are used primarily as refrigerants. They became widely used for this purpose beginning in the late 1980s, with the introduction of the Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chemicals such as halons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that contribute to the depletion of Earth’s ozone layer. However, while HFCs have an ozone depletion potential of zero, they are potent greenhouse gases, and thus their manufacture and use became increasingly regulated in the 21st century.

In general, HFCs are relatively nonflammable, chemically stable, and nonreactive. Many are colorless, odorless gases, but some—such as HFC-365mfc (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane)—are liquids at room temperature. As refrigerants, HFCs are used in a wide variety of cooling systems, from refrigerators and freezers to automotive air-conditioning units. HFCs are also used as blowing agents in the production of polymer foams; as firefighting agents (having replaced halons); as solvents in cleaning products for plastics and metals and in plasma etching for semiconductor technology; and as propellants in metered-dose inhalers prescribed for the treatment of asthma.

There are different routes to the synthesis of HFCs. For example, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, C2H2For R134a), one of the most widely used HFCs, can be prepared from trichloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene through halogen exchange and hydrofluorination, in which chlorine is replaced by hydrogen and fluorine, or through isomerization followed by hydrogenolysis, in which hydrogen is used to split an isomer into the desired reaction products. Other HFCs may be prepared through the fluorination of olefins (unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond) with hydrogen fluoride.

Once released into the atmosphere, HFCs decompose relatively quickly; for example, the atmospheric lifetime for HFC-134a is about 14 years. (CFCs, by comparison, can remain in the atmosphere for 100 years.) The breakdown of HFCs occurs in the troposphere (the lowest portion of the atmosphere), where they are split by reactions with hydroxyl radicals (∙OH). Within the troposphere, the carbon-fluorine bonds in HFCs are highly effective at trapping solar radiation (specifically, infrared radiation) and redirecting that radiant energy toward Earth’s surface. This so-called positive radiative forcing effect contributes to global warming (about 14% of future warming in a low-carbon world).

In 2007 the average 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of HFCs was estimated to be 3,770 times that of carbon dioxide (the standard reference chemical for GWP calculations); weighted averaging (based on HFC consumption) predicted a 100-year GWP of 2,400 by 2040. Warming potential, however, varies widely for the individual HFCs. The GWPs of HFCs range from 53 to almost 15,000. The most commonly used is HFC 134a with a 100-year GWP of over 100.

HFC-23 (trifluoromethane, CHF3), which is generated as a by-product in the production of the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2), has an atmospheric lifetime of 270 years and a 100-year GWP of 11,700, which surpasses known GWPs for some of the most environmentally harmful CFCs. HCFC-22 has been banned in Europe because of this, and a substitute HFC with GWP of only 3 found. That alternative should be investigated by the United States as a much less harmful mobile refrigerant in a carbon-constrained world.

HFCs have become increasingly abundant in Earth’s atmosphere. For example, between 1978 and 2005, atmospheric concentrations of HFC-23 increased from about 3 to around 18 parts per trillion (ppt). Likewise, concentrations of HFC-134a increased from levels that were undetectable prior to the 1990s to about 35 ppt in 2005. Because they are anthropogenic (human-generated) sources of positive radiative forcing, HFC emissions have been targeted for reduction by the Kyoto Protocol. Every molecule of HFC production can be expected to eventually escape to the atmosphere. Their use as refrigerants is virtually assured in a planet that is heating up.

Kara Rogers, supplemented with information from Greenpeace and IPCC by Paul Suckow

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Pet Loss Hotline

Pet Loss Hotline at (877) GRIEF-10.

That’s 877-474-3310.

There are many forms of grief that are completely normal in the wake of the loss of a beloved pet. For support dealing with the loss of a pet, call the ASPCA Pet Loss Hotline.

How can I tell if the pet is still alive?

Use a small mirror. If it fogs up next to the nose, the pet is still breathing. If not, it has likely died. Your nearby vet can help you if you are not sure. For a short time you may be able to revive it using full-breath, human-mouth to pet-nose resuscitation. However if your pet does not revive after three inflations, your pet has passed on.

Cats: Normally the eyes open at death, with wide, dilated pupils. The eyeballs will be soft to the touch, and she won’t blink after death.

How long before the body starts decomposing?

Rigor mortis (body stiffening) will set in within about 3 hours, so time is of the essence. When you hear flies gathering, it’s about time you do something. For a small body, this may happen within hours of death, so don’t delay. If the body is warm it will decompose faster, so find a way to cool the body such as laying it on cool concrete. At most you may store the wrapped body in a refrigerator for 24 hours. Longer than this will require placing in a large enough freezer, and freezing will stop a vet from examining the body to determine cause of death.

What do I do with the body?

You may have your sanitation/waste people haul the covered body away from a fully closed trash receptacle (cheapest), group cremate or individually cremate your pet’s body, inter it in a pet cemetery as group or single burial (each option is more expensive). Find out from your local vet, humane society or police department (not 911) whether you may bury your pet’s body in your back yard (rear garden) before you attempt this. Some jurisdictions have laws about this. It is not possible to bury the body in land that you do not personally own, such as a public space.

If you choose to bury your pet, call 1-800 Miss Dig (1-800-647-7344) before excavating the hole. Plan to put it in the highest and driest ground in your yard, to assist decomposition. However, stay downhill from any water well, in fact 50 to 100 feet away from any source of water, including drainage ditches. If you hit bedrock at the bottom of your pet’s grave, don’t use that spot because water can leach over the rock and become contaminated. Note that roots run seemingly everywhere underground. Consider carefully the size of a root before you attempt to spade through it. You can bury a pet above or below roots of typical trees, shrubs and ground cover, no problem. Just realize that being anywhere within the root zone of a plant means you will run into a root or three.

If your pet died of natural causes and was not diseased, you can let the body decompose into the earth naturally. For this the top of your pet’s body should be under 1-1/2 feet (1/2 meter) of soil, and some mounding is OK.

If your pet was diseased or euthanized with anesthetic chemicals, you need to enclose the pet’s body in a sturdy plastic bag before burial. A box or simple coffin is optional. A larger pet requires a hole at least three to four feet deep (1 meter or more deep) and large enough to bed the body or its container yet leave at least a couple feet (half meter) of compacted soil above.

Bury the pet with some of its favorite things, as you may wish. I thought a plastic food/water bowl he favored as a kitten would last longer than the bones and puzzle future archeologists, so I buried my cat with that.

You can conduct a funeral for those that knew the pet, if you like. Treat it like the family member that it was. This may be important for closure, especially for grieving children. A memorial service can be just as effective as a burial ceremony.

You may want to permanently memorialize your pet’s grave in a way that is special to you. If you have buried the body, especially if the grave is shallow, placing stone or brick markers on top is a good way to prevent scavengers from disturbing the body. I placed a heavy potted plant on the grave I dug for my pet cat of 17 years early this morning (7/20/2017 – RIP).


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Basic Training on Where Veterans Live (Trulia on Forbes)

NOV 10, 2014 @ 12:39 PM 5,949 2 FREE Issues of Forbes

Where Veterans Live

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Knowledge, Scientipic Whiz-Dim, Tricks and Traditional Whiz-dim

The LAW

What’s this? This is the LAW, the complete compendium of laws of the land governing Planet Earth. And beyond… This groundbreaking post starts with the active law governing outer space, then moves to international law governing all of us, then contains each national constitution by link (in whole for my beloved U.S.A.), and finally concludes with an essay about what global governance OUGHT to be about…

The Law

  1. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

    1. The Outer Space Treaty was considered by the Legal Subcommittee in 1966 and agreement was reached in the General Assembly in the same year (resolution 2222 (XXI)). The Treaty was largely based on the Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, which had been adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 1962 (XVIII) in 1963, but added a few new provisions. The Treaty was opened for signature by the three depository Governments (the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America) in January 1967, and it entered into force in October 1967. The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles:
      1. the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
      2. outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
      3. outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means;
      4. States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;
      5. the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;
      6. astronauts shall be regarded as the envoys of mankind;
      7. States shall be responsible for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities;
      8. States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and
      9. States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.
  2. International Law

    1. The UN Charter, in its Preamble, set an objective: “to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained”. Ever since, the development of, and respect for international law has been a key part of the work of the Organization. This work is carried out in many ways – by courts, tribunals, multilateral treaties – and by the Security Council, which can approve peacekeeping missions, impose sanctions, or authorize the use of force when there is a threat to international peace and security, if it deems this necessary. These powers are given to it by the UN Charter, which is considered an international treaty. As such, it is an instrument of international law, and UN Member States are bound by it. The UN Charter codifies the major principles of international relations, from sovereign equality of States to the prohibition of the use of force in international relations.
    2. Settling Disputes Between States
      1. International Court of Justice
      2. The principal judicial organ of the United Nations is the International Court of Justice (ICJ).  This main body of the UN settles legal disputes submitted to it by States in accordance with international law.  It also gives advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it from authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of nine years by the General Assembly and the Security Council.
    3. Courts and Tribunals
      1. In addition to the International Court of Justice, a wide variety of international courts, international tribunalsad hoc tribunals and UN-assisted tribunals have varying degrees of relation to the United Nations (such as the tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon). The Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (the MICT) was established by the United Nations Security Council on 22 December 2010 to carry out a number of essential functions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), after the completion of their respective mandates. These are established by (and are Subsidiary Organs of) the Security Council.
      2. International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), were established by conventions drafted within the UN, but are now independent entities with special cooperation agreements.
    4. What Is International Law?
      1. International law defines the legal responsibilities of States in their conduct with each other, and their treatment of individuals within State boundaries. Its domain encompasses a wide range of issues of international concern, such as human rights, disarmament, international crime, refugees, migration, problems of nationality, the treatment of prisoners, the use of force, and the conduct of war, among others. It also regulates the global commons, such as the environment and sustainable development, international waters, outer space, global communications and world trade.
      2. The Security Council and International Law
        1. Some of the action of the Security Council have international law implications, such as those related to peacekeeping missions, ad hoc tribunals, sanctions, and resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter. In accordance with Article 13(b) of the Rome Statute, the Security Council can refer certain situations to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), if it appears international crimes (such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, the crime of aggression) have been committed.
      3. The General Assembly and International Law
        1. The UN Charter gives the General Assembly the power to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote the development and codification of international law. Many subsidiary bodies of the General Assembly consider specific areas of international law and report to the plenary. Most legal matters are referred the Sixth Committee, which then reports to the plenary. The International Law Commission and the UN Commission on International Trade Law report to the General Assembly. The General Assembly also considers topics related to the institutional law of the United Nations, such as the adoption of the Staff Regulations and the establishment of the system of internal justice.
      4. General Assembly – Sixth Committee (Legal)
        1. The General Assembly’s Sixth Committee is the primary forum for the consideration of legal questions in the General Assembly. All UN Member States are entitled to representation on the Sixth Committee as one of the main committees of the General Assembly.
      5. International Law Commission
        1. The International Law Commission promotes the progressive development of international law and its codification.  The Commission’s work on a topic usually involves some aspects of the progressive development, as well as the codification of international law, with the balance between the two varying depending on the particular topic.
      6. United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
        1. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law is a core legal body of the United Nations system in the field of international trade law, with universal membership, specializing in commercial law, with a focus on the modernization and harmonization of rules on international business. The UNCITRAL Secretariat has established a Case Law on UNCITRAL texts (CLOUT) system for collecting and disseminating information on court decisions and arbitral awards relating to the Conventions and Model Laws that have emanated from the work of the Commission.
      7. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
        1. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down a comprehensive regime of law and order in the world’s oceans and seas, establishing rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources.  The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) of the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations serves as the secretariat of the Convention on the Law of the Sea.
      8. UN Treaty Database
        1. The Status of Multilaterial Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General online database provides the most detailed information on the status of over 560 major multilateral instruments deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and covers a range of subject matters, such as Human Rights, Disarmament, Commodities, Refugees, the Environment, and the Law of the Sea. This database reflects the status of these instruments, as Member States sign, ratify, accede to, or lodge declarations, reservations or objections.
      9. The Internal Justice System at the United Nations
        1. A new Internal Justice System for the United Nations was introduced in 2009, with the goal of having a system that was independent, professionalized, expedient, transparent and decentralized, with a stronger emphasis on resolving disputes through informal means, before resorting to formal litigation.  Because the United Nations has immunity from local jurisdiction and cannot be sued in a national court, the Organization has set up an internal justice system to resolve staff-management disputes, including those that involve disciplinary action.
      10. Legal Resources and Training
        1. The historic archives at the Audiovisual Library of International Law provide a unique resource for the teaching, studying and researching significant legal instruments on international law.
        2. Legal Technical Assistance for UN Member States
          1. The United Nations currently offers Member States technical assistance in connection with a range of legal matters. Such assistance includes the provision of advice, expertise, research, analysis, training or other assistance.
        3. Programme of Assistance for International Law
          1. The Programme of Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of International Law is meant to contribute to a better knowledge of international law “as a means for strengthening international peace and security and promoting friendly relations and co-operation among States.” It is one of the cornerstones of the efforts of the United Nations to promote international law.
  3. National government

    1. The nation-state is the dominant type of political system in the contemporary world, and nationalism, or the creed that centres the supreme loyalty of the people upon the nation-state, is the dominating force in international politics. The national ideal triumphed as a result of the wars of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Napoleonic Wars, which spread the doctrines of the French Revolution, unleashed nationalism as a force in Europe and led to the Risorgimento in Italy and the emergence of Bismarck’s Germany. The two world wars of the 20th century carried the principles of national self-determination and liberal democracy around the world and gave birth to the independence movements that resulted in the foundation of new states in eastern Europe in 1919 and the emergence from colonial status of countries in Asia and Africa after 1945. The collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union itself completed this process of moving from multinational empires to truly sovereign national states.
    2. All the major forces of world politics—e.g., war, the development of national economies, and the demand for social services—have reinforced the national state as the primary focus of people’s loyalties. Wars have played the major part in strengthening national governments and weakening political regionalism and localism. The attachments that people have to subnational political communities are loosened when they must depend for their security on the national power. Even in the new age of total war—which few countries are capable of waging and even fewer of surviving—people look for their security to national governments rather than to international organizations. In nearly all contemporary states, the national budget is dominated by expenditures for defense, the military employs the largest fraction of the work force, and questions of national security pervade the discussion of politics.
    3. One of the lessons of the last century was that national sovereignty continues to be the most important obstacle not only to the emergence of new forms of supranational government but to effective international cooperation as well. Almost everywhere, attempts to achieve federation and other forms of multinational communication have foundered on the rocks of nationalism. The collapse of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and the Federation of Malaya, for example, were paralleled by the seeming ineffectiveness of the Organization of American States and the Arab League. On another level was the collapse of the Warsaw Pact when the countries of eastern Europe reclaimed their sovereignty in the late 1980s after decades of domination by the Soviet Union. In western Europe, however, countries joined together to form the supranational European Communities, which ultimately were succeeded by the European Union (EU) and expanded to encompass the bulk of the European continent. The countries of the EU are united not only by a long history and a common cultural inheritance but also by the expectation of mutual economic advantage. Even in this case, though, nationalism has proved to be an obstacle to the most ambitious goals of unification, which would severely limit national sovereignty in some spheres.
    4. At the international level, anarchy is the principal form of contemporary rule, for the nation-state’s freedom of action is limited only by its power. While the state’s freedom of action may not be directly threatened, the effectiveness of the state’s action in the economic realm is increasingly being called into question. The development of national industries in the 19th and early 20th centuries played a major part in strengthening national as against regional and local political entities, but the scale of economic activity has now outgrown national markets. Industrial combines and commercial groupings have emerged that cross national frontiers and require international markets. This tight integration of the world economy has limited the effectiveness of some traditional instruments used to influence national trends in capitalist economies.
    5. It is increasingly clear that some aspects of traditional sovereignty may be affected by serious efforts to confront some issues that act on the entire international system. National frontiers can no longer be adequately defended in an era of intercontinental ballistic missiles, especially with the rapid diffusion of the technology required for delivery systems as well as for nuclear weapons themselves. Action in this area is, by definition, an attempt to shape the national security policy of states, something very near the core of a state’s sovereignty. Concern over environmental matters could lead to more restrictive regimes than any arms-control provisions, ultimately shaping the way in which countries evolve economically. Destruction of major ecosystems, wasteful use of energy, and industrialization based on the use of fossil fuels are all national policies with international repercussions. As technology empowers more countries to directly affect the state of the planet as well as other countries, there are increasing incentives to limit the domestic policy choices of all countries.
  4. National government constitutions

  1. Afghanistan 2004
  2. Albania 1998 (rev. 2012)
  3. Algeria 1989 (reinst. 1996, rev. 2008)
  4. Andorra 1993
  5. Angola 2010
  6. Antigua and Barbuda 1981
  7. Argentina 1853 (reinst. 1983, rev. 1994)
  8. Armenia 1995 (rev. 2005)
  9. Australia 1901 (rev. 1985)
  10. Austria 1920 (reinst. 1945, rev. 2013)
  11. Azerbaijan 1995 (rev. 2009)
  12. Bahamas 1973 (rev. 2002)
  13. Bahrain 2002 (rev. 2012)
  14. Bangladesh 1972 (reinst. 1986, rev. 2014)
  15. Barbados 1966 (rev. 2007)
  16. Belarus 1994 (rev. 2004)
  17. Belgium 1831 (rev. 2014)
  18. Belize 1981 (rev. 2011)
  19. Benin 1990
  20. Bhutan 2008
  21. Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2009
  22. Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 (rev. 2009)
  23. Botswana 1966 (rev. 2005)
  24. Brazil 1988 (rev. 2015)
  25. Brunei Darussalam 1959 (rev. 2006)
  26. Bulgaria 1991 (rev. 2015)
  27. Burkina Faso 1991 (rev. 2012)
  28. Cambodia 1993 (rev. 2008)
  29. Cameroon 1972 (rev. 2008)
  30. Canada 1867 (rev. 2011)
  31. Cape Verde 1980 (rev. 1992)
  32. Chad 1996 (rev. 2005)
  33. Chile 1980 (rev. 2015)
  34. China 1982 (rev. 2004)
  35. Colombia 1991 (rev. 2015)Comoros 2001 (rev. 2009)
  36. Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2005 (rev. 2011)
  37. Costa Rica 1949 (rev. 2011)
  38. Croatia 1991 (rev. 2010)
  39. Cuba 1976 (rev. 2002)
  40. Cyprus 1960 (rev. 2013)
  41. Czech Republic 1993 (rev. 2013)
  42. Denmark 1953
  43. Djibouti 1992 (rev. 2010)
  44. Dominica 1978 (rev. 1984)
  45. Dominican Republic 2015
  46. Ecuador 2008 (rev. 2015)Egypt 2014
  47. El Salvador 1983 (rev. 2014)Equatorial Guinea 1991 (rev. 2012)
  48. Eritrea 1997
  49. Estonia 1992 (rev. 2015)
  50. Ethiopia 1994
  51. Fiji 2013
  52. Finland 1999 (rev. 2011)
  53. France 1958 (rev. 2008)
  54. Gabon 1991 (rev. 2011)
  55. Gambia 1996 (rev. 2004)
  56. Georgia 1995 (rev. 2013)
  57. Germany 1949 (rev. 2014)
  58. Ghana 1992 (rev. 1996)
  59. Greece 1975 (rev. 2008)
  60. Grenada 1973 (reinst. 1991, rev. 1992)
  61. Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)
  62. Guinea 2010
  63. Guinea-Bissau 1984 (rev. 1991)
  64. Guyana 1980 (rev. 2009)
  65. Haiti 1987 (rev. 2012)
  66. Honduras 1982 (rev. 2013)
  67. Hungary 2011 (rev. 2013)
  68. Iceland 1944 (rev. 2013)
  69. India 1949 (rev. 2015)
  70. Indonesia 1945 (reinst. 1959, rev. 2002)
  71. Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1979 (rev. 1989)
  72. Iraq 2005
  73. Ireland 1937 (rev. 2015
  74. Israel 1958 (rev. 2013)
  75. Italy 1947 (rev. 2012)
  76. Jamaica 1962 (rev. 2011)
  77. Japan 1946
  78. Jordan 1952 (rev. 2016)
  79. Kazakhstan 1995 (rev. 2011)
  80. Kenya 2010
  81. Kiribati 1979 (rev. 1995)
  82. Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of) 1972 (rev. 1998)
  83. Korea (Republic of) 1948 (rev. 1987)
  84. Kosovo 2008
  85. Kuwait 1962 (reinst. 1992)
  86. Kyrgyzstan 2010
  87. Lao People’s Democratic Republic 1991 (rev. 2003)
  88. Latvia 1922 (reinst. 1991, rev. 2014)
  89. Lebanon 1926 (rev. 2004)
  90. Lesotho 1993 (rev. 1998)
  91. Liberia 1986
  92. Libya 2011 (rev. 2012)
  93. Liechtenstein 1921 (rev. 2003)
  94. Lithuania 1992 (rev. 2006)
  95. Luxembourg 1868 (rev. 2009)
  96. Macedonia (The former Yugoslav Republic of) 1991 (rev. 2011)
  97. Madagascar 2010
  98. Malawi 1994 (rev. 1999)
  99. Malaysia 1957 (rev. 2007)
  100. Maldives 2008
  101. Mali 1992
  102. Malta 1964 (rev. 2014)
  103. Marshall Islands 1979 (rev. 1995)
  104. Mauritania 1991 (rev. 2012)
  105. Mauritius 1968 (rev. 2011)
  106. Mexico 1917 (rev. 2015)
  107. Micronesia (Federated States of) 1978 (rev. 1990)
  108. Moldova (Republic of) 1994 (rev. 2006)
  109. Monaco 1962 (rev. 2002)
  110. Mongolia 1992 (rev. 2001
  111. Montenegro 2007
  112. Morocco 2011
  113. Mozambique 2004 (rev. 2007)
  114. Myanmar 2008
  115. Namibia 1990 (rev. 2010)
  116. Nauru 1968
  117. Nepal 2015
  118. Netherlands 1815 (rev. 2008)
  119. New Zealand 1852 (rev. 2014)
  120. Nicaragua 1987 (rev. 2014)
  121. Niger 2010
  122. Nigeria 1999
  123. Norway 1814 (rev. 2015)
  124. Oman 1996 (rev. 2011)
  125. Pakistan 1973 (reinst. 2002, rev. 2015)
  126. Palau 1981 (rev. 1992)
  127. Panama 1972 (rev. 2004)
  128. Papua New Guinea 1975 (rev. 2014)
  129. Paraguay 1992 (rev. 2011)
  130. Peru 1993 (rev. 2009)
  131. Philippines 1987
  132. Poland 1997 (rev. 2009)
  133. Portugal 1976 (rev. 2005)
  134. Qatar 2003
  135. Romania 1991 (rev. 2003)
  136. Russian Federation 1993 (rev. 2014)
  137. Rwanda 2003 (rev. 2015)
  138. Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983
  139. Saint Lucia 1978
  140. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979
  141. Samoa 1962 (rev. 2013)
  142. Sao Tome and Principe 1975 (rev. 1990)
  143. Saudi Arabia 1992 (rev. 2013)
  144. Senegal 2001 (rev. 2009)
  145. Serbia 2006
  146. Seychelles 1993 (rev. 2011)
  147. Sierra Leone 1991 (reinst. 1996, rev. 2008)
  148. Singapore 1963 (rev. 2010)
  149. Slovakia 1992 (rev. 2014)
  150. Slovenia 1991 (rev. 2013)
  151. Solomon Islands 1978 (rev. 2009)
  152. Somalia 2012
  153. South Africa 1996 (rev. 2012)
  154. South Sudan 2011 (rev. 2013)
  155. Spain 1978 (rev. 2011)
  156. Sri Lanka 1978 (rev. 2015)
  157. Sudan 2005
  158. Suriname 1987 (rev. 1992)
  159. Swaziland 2005
  160. Sweden 1974 (rev. 2012)
  161. Switzerland 1999 (rev. 2014)
  162. Syrian Arab Republic 2012
  163. Taiwan 1947 (rev. 2005)
  164. Tajikistan 1994 (rev. 2003)
  165. Thailand 2014
  166. Timor-Leste 2002
  167. Togo 1992 (rev. 2007)
  168. Tonga 1875 (rev. 1988)
  169. Trinidad and Tobago 1976 (rev. 2007)
  170. Tunisia 2014
  171. Turkey 1982 (rev. 2011)
  172. Turkmenistan 2008
  173. Tuvalu 1986
  174. Uganda 1995 (rev. 2005)
  175. Ukraine 1996 (rev. 2014)
  176. United Arab Emirates 1971 (rev. 2009)
  177. United Kingdom 1215 (rev. 2013)
  178. United Republic of Tanzania 1977 (rev. 1995)
  179. United States of America 1789 (rev. 1992)

    PREAMBLE

    1. WE THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, IN ORDER TO FORM A MORE PERFECT UNION, ESTABLISH JUSTICE, INSURE DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY, PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENSE, PROMOTE THE GENERAL WELFARE, AND SECURE THE BLESSINGS OF LIBERTY TO OURSELVES AND OUR POSTERITY, DO ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH THIS CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

    1. ARTICLE I

      1. SECTION 1

        1. ALL LEGISLATIVE POWERS HEREIN GRANTED SHALL BE VESTED IN A CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, WHICH SHALL CONSIST OF A SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL BE COMPOSED OF MEMBERS CHOSEN EVERY SECOND YEAR BY THE PEOPLE OF THE SEVERAL STATES, AND THE ELECTORS IN EACH STATE SHALL HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUISITE FOR ELECTORS OF THE MOST NUMEROUS BRANCH OF THE STATE LEGISLATURE.

        2. NO PERSON SHALL BE A REPRESENTATIVE WHO SHALL NOT HAVE ATTAINED TO THE AGE OF TWENTY FIVE YEARS, AND BEEN SEVEN YEARS A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WHO SHALL NOT, WHEN ELECTED, BE AN INHABITANT OF THAT STATE IN WHICH HE SHALL BE CHOSEN.

        3. REPRESENTATIVES AND DIRECT TAXES SHALL BE APPORTIONED AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES WHICH MAY BE INCLUDED WITHIN THIS UNION, ACCORDING TO THEIR RESPECTIVE NUMBERS, WHICH SHALL BE DETERMINED BY ADDING TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF FREE PERSONS, INCLUDING THOSE BOUND TO SERVICE FOR A TERM OF YEARS, AND EXCLUDING INDIANS NOT TAXED, THREE FIFTHS OF ALL OTHER PERSONS. THE ACTUAL ENUMERATION SHALL BE MADE WITHIN THREE YEARS AFTER THE FIRST MEETING OF THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WITHIN EVERY SUBSEQUENT TERM OF TEN YEARS, IN SUCH MANNER AS THEY SHALL BY LAW DIRECT. THE NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL NOT EXCEED ONE FOR EVERY THIRTY THOUSAND, BUT EACH STATE SHALL HAVE AT LEAST ONE REPRESENTATIVE; AND UNTIL SUCH ENUMERATION SHALL BE MADE, THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE SHALL BE ENTITLED TO CHOOSE THREE, MASSACHUSETTS EIGHT, RHODE-ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS ONE, CONNECTICUT FIVE, NEW-YORK SIX, NEW JERSEY FOUR, PENNSYLVANIA EIGHT, DELAWARE ONE, MARYLAND SIX, VIRGINIA TEN, NORTH CAROLINA FIVE, SOUTH CAROLINA FIVE, AND GEORGIA THREE.

        4. WHEN VACANCIES HAPPEN IN THE REPRESENTATION FROM ANY STATE, THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY THEREOF SHALL ISSUE WRITS OF ELECTION TO FILL SUCH VACANCIES.

        5. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL CHOOSE THEIR SPEAKER AND OTHER OFFICERS; AND SHALL HAVE THE SOLE POWER OF IMPEACHMENT.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE COMPOSED OF TWO SENATORS FROM EACH STATE, CHOSEN BY THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF, FOR SIX YEARS; AND EACH SENATOR SHALL HAVE ONE VOTE.

        2. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEY SHALL BE ASSEMBLED IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE FIRST ELECTION, THEY SHALL BE DIVIDED AS EQUALLY AS MAY BE INTO THREE CLASSES. THE SEATS OF THE SENATORS OF THE FIRST CLASS SHALL BE VACATED AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE SECOND YEAR, OF THE SECOND CLASS AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE FOURTH YEAR, AND OF THE THIRD CLASS AT THE EXPIRATION OF THE SIXTH YEAR, SO THAT ONE THIRD MAY BE CHOSEN EVERY SECOND YEAR; AND IF VACANCIES HAPPEN BY RESIGNATION, OR OTHERWISE, DURING THE RECESS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF ANY STATE, THE EXECUTIVE THEREOF MAY MAKE TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS UNTIL THE NEXT MEETING OF THE LEGISLATURE, WHICH SHALL THEN FILL SUCH VACANCIES.

        3. NO PERSON SHALL BE A SENATOR WHO SHALL NOT HAVE ATTAINED TO THE AGE OF THIRTY YEARS, AND BEEN NINE YEARS A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WHO SHALL NOT, WHEN ELECTED, BE AN INHABITANT OF THAT STATE FOR WHICH HE SHALL BE CHOSEN.

        4. THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, BUT SHALL HAVE NO VOTE, UNLESS THEY BE EQUALLY DIVIDED.

        5. THE SENATE SHALL CHOOSE THEIR OTHER OFFICERS, AND ALSO A PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE, IN THE ABSENCE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT, OR WHEN HE SHALL EXERCISE THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

        6. THE SENATE SHALL HAVE THE SOLE POWER TO TRY ALL IMPEACHMENTS. WHEN SITTING FOR THAT PURPOSE, THEY SHALL BE ON OATH OR AFFIRMATION. WHEN THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IS TRIED, THE CHIEF JUSTICE SHALL PRESIDE: AND NO PERSON SHALL BE CONVICTED WITHOUT THE CONCURRENCE OF TWO THIRDS OF THE MEMBERS PRESENT.

        7. JUDGMENT IN CASES OF IMPEACHMENT SHALL NOT EXTEND FURTHER THAN TO REMOVAL FROM OFFICE, AND DISQUALIFICATION TO HOLD AND ENJOY ANY OFFICE OF HONOR, TRUST OR PROFIT UNDER THE UNITED STATES: BUT THE PARTY CONVICTED SHALL NEVERTHELESS BE LIABLE AND SUBJECT TO INDICTMENT, TRIAL, JUDGMENT AND PUNISHMENT, ACCORDING TO LAW.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE TIMES, PLACES AND MANNER OF HOLDING ELECTIONS FOR SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES, SHALL BE PRESCRIBED IN EACH STATE BY THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF; BUT THE CONGRESS MAY AT ANY TIME BY LAW MAKE OR ALTER SUCH REGULATIONS, EXCEPT AS TO THE PLACES OF CHOOSING SENATORS.

        2. THE CONGRESS SHALL ASSEMBLE AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY YEAR, AND SUCH MEETING SHALL BE ON THE FIRST MONDAY IN DECEMBER, UNLESS THEY SHALL BY LAW APPOINT A DIFFERENT DAY.

      5. SECTION 5

        1. EACH HOUSE SHALL BE THE JUDGE OF THE ELECTIONS, RETURNS AND QUALIFICATIONS OF ITS OWN MEMBERS, AND A MAJORITY OF EACH SHALL CONSTITUTE A QUORUM TO DO BUSINESS; BUT A SMALLER NUMBER MAY ADJOURN FROM DAY TO DAY, AND MAY BE AUTHORIZED TO COMPEL THE ATTENDANCE OF ABSENT MEMBERS, IN SUCH MANNER, AND UNDER SUCH PENALTIES AS EACH HOUSE MAY PROVIDE.

        2. EACH HOUSE MAY DETERMINE THE RULES OF ITS PROCEEDINGS, PUNISH ITS MEMBERS FOR DISORDERLY BEHAVIOUR, AND, WITH THE CONCURRENCE OF TWO THIRDS, EXPEL A MEMBER.

        3. EACH HOUSE SHALL KEEP A JOURNAL OF ITS PROCEEDINGS, AND FROM TIME TO TIME PUBLISH THE SAME, EXCEPTING SUCH PARTS AS MAY IN THEIR JUDGMENT REQUIRE SECRECY; AND THE YEAS AND NAYS OF THE MEMBERS OF EITHER HOUSE ON ANY QUESTION SHALL, AT THE DESIRE OF ONE FIFTH OF THOSE PRESENT, BE ENTERED ON THE JOURNAL.

        4. NEITHER HOUSE, DURING THE SESSION OF CONGRESS, SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE OTHER, ADJOURN FOR MORE THAN THREE DAYS, NOR TO ANY OTHER PLACE THAN THAT IN WHICH THE TWO HOUSES SHALL BE SITTING.

      6. SECTION 6

        1. THE SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES SHALL RECEIVE A COMPENSATION FOR THEIR SERVICES, TO BE ASCERTAINED BY LAW, AND PAID OUT OF THE TREASURY OF THE UNITED STATES. THEY SHALL IN ALL CASES, EXCEPT TREASON, FELONY AND BREACH OF THE PEACE, BE PRIVILEGED FROM ARREST DURING THEIR ATTENDANCE AT THE SESSION OF THEIR RESPECTIVE HOUSES, AND IN GOING TO AND RETURNING FROM THE SAME; AND FOR ANY SPEECH OR DEBATE IN EITHER HOUSE, THEY SHALL NOT BE QUESTIONED IN ANY OTHER PLACE.

        2. NO SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE SHALL, DURING THE TIME FOR WHICH HE WAS ELECTED, BE APPOINTED TO ANY CIVIL OFFICE UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES, WHICH SHALL HAVE BEEN CREATED, OR THE EMOLUMENTS WHEREOF SHALL HAVE BEEN INCREASED DURING SUCH TIME; AND NO PERSON HOLDING ANY OFFICE UNDER THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE A MEMBER OF EITHER HOUSE DURING HIS CONTINUANCE IN OFFICE.

      7. SECTION 7

        1. ALL BILLS FOR RAISING REVENUE SHALL ORIGINATE IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES; BUT THE SENATE MAY PROPOSE OR CONCUR WITH AMENDMENTS AS ON OTHER BILLS.

        2. EVERY BILL WHICH SHALL HAVE PASSED THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE SENATE, SHALL, BEFORE IT BECOME A LAW, BE PRESENTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: IF HE APPROVE HE SHALL SIGN IT, BUT IF NOT HE SHALL RETURN IT, WITH HIS OBJECTIONS TO THAT HOUSE IN WHICH IT SHALL HAVE ORIGINATED, WHO SHALL ENTER THE OBJECTIONS AT LARGE ON THEIR JOURNAL, AND PROCEED TO RECONSIDER IT. IF AFTER SUCH RECONSIDERATION TWO THIRDS OF THAT HOUSE SHALL AGREE TO PASS THE BILL, IT SHALL BE SENT, TOGETHER WITH THE OBJECTIONS, TO THE OTHER HOUSE, BY WHICH IT SHALL LIKEWISE BE RECONSIDERED, AND IF APPROVED BY TWO THIRDS OF THAT HOUSE, IT SHALL BECOME A LAW. BUT IN ALL SUCH CASES THE VOTES OF BOTH HOUSES SHALL BE DETERMINED BY YEAS AND NAYS, AND THE NAMES OF THE PERSONS VOTING FOR AND AGAINST THE BILL SHALL BE ENTERED ON THE JOURNAL OF EACH HOUSE RESPECTIVELY. IF ANY BILL SHALL NOT BE RETURNED BY THE PRESIDENT WITHIN TEN DAYS (SUNDAYS EXCEPTED) AFTER IT SHALL HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO HIM, THE SAME SHALL BE A LAW, IN LIKE MANNER AS IF HE HAD SIGNED IT, UNLESS THE CONGRESS BY THEIR ADJOURNMENT PREVENT ITS RETURN, IN WHICH CASE IT SHALL NOT BE A LAW.

        3. EVERY ORDER, RESOLUTION, OR VOTE TO WHICH THE CONCURRENCE OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MAY BE NECESSARY (EXCEPT ON A QUESTION OF ADJOURNMENT) SHALL BE PRESENTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES; AND BEFORE THE SAME SHALL TAKE EFFECT, SHALL BE APPROVED BY HIM, OR BEING DISAPPROVED BY HIM, SHALL BE REPASSED BY TWO THIRDS OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, ACCORDING TO THE RULES AND LIMITATIONS PRESCRIBED IN THE CASE OF A BILL.

      8. SECTION 8

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO LAY AND COLLECT TAXES, DUTIES, IMPOSTS AND EXCISES, TO PAY THE DEBTS AND PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENCE AND GENERAL WELFARE OF THE UNITED STATES; BUT ALL DUTIES, IMPOSTS AND EXCISES SHALL BE UNIFORM THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES;

        2. TO BORROW MONEY ON THE CREDIT OF THE UNITED STATES;

        3. TO REGULATE COMMERCE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS, AND AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES, AND WITH THE INDIAN TRIBES;

        4. TO ESTABLISH AN UNIFORM RULE OF NATURALIZATION, AND UNIFORM LAWS ON THE SUBJECT OF BANKRUPTCIES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES;

        5. TO COIN MONEY, REGULATE THE VALUE THEREOF, AND OF FOREIGN COIN, AND FIX THE STANDARD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES;

        6. TO PROVIDE FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF COUNTERFEITING THE SECURITIES AND CURRENT COIN OF THE UNITED STATES;

        7. TO ESTABLISH POST OFFICES AND POST ROADS;

        8. TO PROMOTE THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND USEFUL ARTS, BY SECURING FOR LIMITED TIMES TO AUTHORS AND INVENTORS THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO THEIR RESPECTIVE WRITINGS AND DISCOVERIES;

        9. TO CONSTITUTE TRIBUNALS INFERIOR TO THE SUPREME COURT;

        10. TO DEFINE AND PUNISH PIRACIES AND FELONIES COMMITTED ON THE HIGH SEAS, AND OFFENCES AGAINST THE LAW OF NATIONS;

        11. TO DECLARE WAR, GRANT LETTERS OF MARQUE AND REPRISAL, AND MAKE RULES CONCERNING CAPTURES ON LAND AND WATER;

        12. TO RAISE AND SUPPORT ARMIES, BUT NO APPROPRIATION OF MONEY TO THAT USE SHALL BE FOR A LONGER TERM THAN TWO YEARS;

        13. TO PROVIDE AND MAINTAIN A NAVY;

        14. TO MAKE RULES FOR THE GOVERNMENT AND REGULATION OF THE LAND AND NAVAL FORCES;

        15. TO PROVIDE FOR CALLING FORTH THE MILITIA TO EXECUTE THE LAWS OF THE UNION, SUPPRESS INSURRECTIONS AND REPEL INVASIONS;

        16. TO PROVIDE FOR ORGANIZING, ARMING, AND DISCIPLINING, THE MILITIA, AND FOR GOVERNING SUCH PART OF THEM AS MAY BE EMPLOYED IN THE SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES, RESERVING TO THE STATES RESPECTIVELY, THE APPOINTMENT OF THE OFFICERS, AND THE AUTHORITY OF TRAINING THE MILITIA ACCORDING TO THE DISCIPLINE PRESCRIBED BY CONGRESS;

        17. TO EXERCISE EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATION IN ALL CASES WHATSOEVER, OVER SUCH DISTRICT (NOT EXCEEDING TEN MILES SQUARE) AS MAY, BY CESSION OF PARTICULAR STATES, AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF CONGRESS, BECOME THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, AND TO EXERCISE LIKE AUTHORITY OVER ALL PLACES PURCHASED BY THE CONSENT OF THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE IN WHICH THE SAME SHALL BE, FOR THE ERECTION OF FORTS, MAGAZINES, ARSENALS, DOCK-YARDS, AND OTHER NEEDFUL BUILDINGS;-AND

        18. TO MAKE ALL LAWS WHICH SHALL BE NECESSARY AND PROPER FOR CARRYING INTO EXECUTION THE FOREGOING POWERS, AND ALL OTHER POWERS VESTED BY THIS CONSTITUTION IN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, OR IN ANY DEPARTMENT OR OFFICER THEREOF.

      9. SECTION 9

        1. THE MIGRATION OR IMPORTATION OF SUCH PERSONS AS ANY OF THE STATES NOW EXISTING SHALL THINK PROPER TO ADMIT, SHALL NOT BE PROHIBITED BY THE CONGRESS PRIOR TO THE YEAR ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND EIGHT, BUT A TAX OR DUTY MAY BE IMPOSED ON SUCH IMPORTATION, NOT EXCEEDING TEN DOLLARS FOR EACH PERSON.

        2. THE PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS SHALL NOT BE SUSPENDED, UNLESS WHEN IN CASES OF REBELLION OR INVASION THE PUBLIC SAFETY MAY REQUIRE IT.

        3. NO BILL OF ATTAINDER OR EX POST FACTO LAW SHALL BE PASSED.

        4. NO CAPITATION, OR OTHER DIRECT, TAX SHALL BE LAID, UNLESS IN PROPORTION TO THE CENSUS OR ENUMERATION HEREIN BEFORE DIRECTED TO BE TAKEN.

        5. NO TAX OR DUTY SHALL BE LAID ON ARTICLES EXPORTED FROM ANY STATE.

        6. NO PREFERENCE SHALL BE GIVEN BY ANY REGULATION OF COMMERCE OR REVENUE TO THE PORTS OF ONE STATE OVER THOSE OF ANOTHER; NOR SHALL VESSELS BOUND TO, OR FROM, ONE STATE, BE OBLIGED TO ENTER, CLEAR, OR PAY DUTIES IN ANOTHER.

        7. NO MONEY SHALL BE DRAWN FROM THE TREASURY, BUT IN CONSEQUENCE OF APPROPRIATIONS MADE BY LAW; AND A REGULAR STATEMENT AND ACCOUNT OF THE RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF ALL PUBLIC MONEY SHALL BE PUBLISHED FROM TIME TO TIME.

        8. NO TITLE OF NOBILITY SHALL BE GRANTED BY THE UNITED STATES: AND NO PERSON HOLDING ANY OFFICE OF PROFIT OR TRUST UNDER THEM, SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE CONGRESS, ACCEPT OF ANY PRESENT, EMOLUMENT, OFFICE, OR TITLE, OF ANY KIND WHATEVER, FROM ANY KING, PRINCE, OR FOREIGN STATE.

      10. SECTION 10

        1. NO STATE SHALL ENTER INTO ANY TREATY, ALLIANCE, OR CONFEDERATION; GRANT LETTERS OF MARQUE AND REPRISAL; COIN MONEY; EMIT BILLS OF CREDIT; MAKE ANY THING BUT GOLD AND SILVER COIN A TENDER IN PAYMENT OF DEBTS; PASS ANY BILL OF ATTAINDER, EX POST FACTO LAW, OR LAW IMPAIRING THE OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS, OR GRANT ANY TITLE OF NOBILITY.

        2. NO STATE SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE CONGRESS, LAY ANY IMPOSTS OR DUTIES ON IMPORTS OR EXPORTS, EXCEPT WHAT MAY BE ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY FOR EXECUTING ITS INSPECTION LAWS: AND THE NET PRODUCE OF ALL DUTIES AND IMPOSTS, LAID BY ANY STATE ON IMPORTS OR EXPORTS, SHALL BE FOR THE USE OF THE TREASURY OF THE UNITED STATES; AND ALL SUCH LAWS SHALL BE SUBJECT TO THE REVISION AND CONTROL OF THE CONGRESS.

        3. NO STATE SHALL, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF CONGRESS, LAY ANY DUTY OF TONNAGE, KEEP TROOPS, OR SHIPS OF WAR IN TIME OF PEACE, ENTER INTO ANY AGREEMENT OR COMPACT WITH ANOTHER STATE, OR WITH A FOREIGN POWER, OR ENGAGE IN WAR, UNLESS ACTUALLY INVADED, OR IN SUCH IMMINENT DANGER AS WILL NOT ADMIT OF DELAY.

    2. ARTICLE II

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE EXECUTIVE POWER SHALL BE VESTED IN A PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. HE SHALL HOLD HIS OFFICE DURING THE TERM OF FOUR YEARS, AND, TOGETHER WITH THE VICE PRESIDENT, CHOSEN FOR THE SAME TERM, BE ELECTED, AS FOLLOWS:

        2. EACH STATE SHALL APPOINT, IN SUCH MANNER AS THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF MAY DIRECT, A NUMBER OF ELECTORS, EQUAL TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES TO WHICH THE STATE MAY BE ENTITLED IN THE CONGRESS: BUT NO SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE, OR PERSON HOLDING AN OFFICE OF TRUST OR PROFIT UNDER THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE APPOINTED AN ELECTOR.

        3. THE ELECTORS SHALL MEET IN THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES, AND VOTE BY BALLOT FOR TWO PERSONS, OF WHOM ONE AT LEAST SHALL NOT BE AN INHABITANT OF THE SAME STATE WITH THEMSELVES. AND THEY SHALL MAKE A LIST OF ALL THE PERSONS VOTED FOR, AND OF THE NUMBER OF VOTES FOR EACH; WHICH LIST THEY SHALL SIGN AND CERTIFY, AND TRANSMIT SEALED TO THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DIRECTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE SHALL, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, OPEN ALL THE CERTIFICATES, AND THE VOTES SHALL THEN BE COUNTED. THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES SHALL BE THE PRESIDENT, IF SUCH NUMBER BE A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF ELECTORS APPOINTED; AND IF THERE BE MORE THAN ONE WHO HAVE SUCH MAJORITY, AND HAVE AN EQUAL NUMBER OF VOTES, THEN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL IMMEDIATELY CHOOSE BY BALLOT ONE OF THEM FOR PRESIDENT; AND IF NO PERSON HAVE A MAJORITY, THEN FROM THE FIVE HIGHEST ON THE LIST THE SAID HOUSE SHALL IN LIKE MANNER CHOOSE THE PRESIDENT. BUT IN CHOOSING THE PRESIDENT, THE VOTES SHALL BE TAKEN BY STATES, THE REPRESENTATIVES FROM EACH STATE HAVING ONE VOTE; A QUORUM FOR THIS PURPOSE SHALL CONSIST OF A MEMBER OR MEMBERS FROM TWO THIRDS OF THE STATES, AND A MAJORITY OF ALL THE STATES SHALL BE NECESSARY TO A CHOICE. IN EVERY CASE, AFTER THE CHOICE OF THE PRESIDENT, THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES OF THE ELECTORS SHALL BE THE VICE PRESIDENT. BUT IF THERE SHOULD REMAIN TWO OR MORE WHO HAVE EQUAL VOTES, THE SENATE SHALL CHOOSE FROM THEM BY BALLOT THE VICE-PRESIDENT.

        4. THE CONGRESS MAY DETERMINE THE TIME OF CHOOSING THE ELECTORS, AND THE DAY ON WHICH THEY SHALL GIVE THEIR VOTES; WHICH DAY SHALL BE THE SAME THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES.

        5. NO PERSON EXCEPT A NATURAL BORN CITIZEN, OR A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES, AT THE TIME OF THE ADOPTION OF THIS CONSTITUTION, SHALL BE ELIGIBLE TO THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT; NEITHER SHALL ANY PERSON BE ELIGIBLE TO THAT OFFICE WHO SHALL NOT HAVE ATTAINED TO THE AGE OF THIRTY FIVE YEARS, AND BEEN FOURTEEN YEARS A RESIDENT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES.

        6. IN CASE OF THE REMOVAL OF THE PRESIDENT FROM OFFICE, OR OF HIS DEATH, RESIGNATION, OR INABILITY TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE SAID OFFICE, THE SAME SHALL DEVOLVE ON THE VICE PRESIDENT, AND THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE FOR THE CASE OF REMOVAL, DEATH, RESIGNATION OR INABILITY, BOTH OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT, DECLARING WHAT OFFICER SHALL THEN ACT AS PRESIDENT, AND SUCH OFFICER SHALL ACT ACCORDINGLY, UNTIL THE DISABILITY BE REMOVED, OR A PRESIDENT SHALL BE ELECTED.

        7. THE PRESIDENT SHALL, AT STATED TIMES, RECEIVE FOR HIS SERVICES, A COMPENSATION, WHICH SHALL NEITHER BE INCREASED NOR DIMINISHED DURING THE PERIOD FOR WHICH HE SHALL HAVE BEEN ELECTED, AND HE SHALL NOT RECEIVE WITHIN THAT PERIOD ANY OTHER EMOLUMENT FROM THE UNITED STATES, OR ANY OF THEM.

        8. BEFORE HE ENTER ON THE EXECUTION OF HIS OFFICE, HE SHALL TAKE THE FOLLOWING OATH OR AFFIRMATION:-“I DO SOLEMNLY SWEAR (OR AFFIRM) THAT I WILL FAITHFULLY EXECUTE THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, AND WILL TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY, PRESERVE, PROTECT AND DEFEND THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.”

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE PRESIDENT SHALL BE COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE ARMY AND NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES, AND OF THE MILITIA OF THE SEVERAL STATES, WHEN CALLED INTO THE ACTUAL SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES; HE MAY REQUIRE THE OPINION, IN WRITING, OF THE PRINCIPAL OFFICER IN EACH OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS, UPON ANY SUBJECT RELATING TO THE DUTIES OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OFFICES, AND HE SHALL HAVE POWER TO GRANT REPRIEVES AND PARDONS FOR OFFENCES AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT IN CASES OF IMPEACHMENT.

        2. HE SHALL HAVE POWER, BY AND WITH THE ADVICE AND CONSENT OF THE SENATE, TO MAKE TREATIES, PROVIDED TWO THIRDS OF THE SENATORS PRESENT CONCUR; AND HE SHALL NOMINATE, AND BY AND WITH THE ADVICE AND CONSENT OF THE SENATE, SHALL APPOINT AMBASSADORS, OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS AND CONSULS, JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT, AND ALL OTHER OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES, WHOSE APPOINTMENTS ARE NOT HEREIN OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, AND WHICH SHALL BE ESTABLISHED BY LAW: BUT THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW VEST THE APPOINTMENT OF SUCH INFERIOR OFFICERS, AS THEY THINK PROPER, IN THE PRESIDENT ALONE, IN THE COURTS OF LAW, OR IN THE HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS.

        3. THE PRESIDENT SHALL HAVE POWER TO FILL UP ALL VACANCIES THAT MAY HAPPEN DURING THE RECESS OF THE SENATE, BY GRANTING COMMISSIONS WHICH SHALL EXPIRE AT THE END OF THEIR NEXT SESSION.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. HE SHALL FROM TIME TO TIME GIVE TO THE CONGRESS INFORMATION ON THE STATE OF THE UNION, AND RECOMMEND TO THEIR CONSIDERATION SUCH MEASURES AS HE SHALL JUDGE NECESSARY AND EXPEDIENT; HE MAY, ON EXTRAORDINARY OCCASIONS, CONVENE BOTH HOUSES, OR EITHER OF THEM, AND IN CASE OF DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN THEM, WITH RESPECT TO THE TIME OF ADJOURNMENT, HE MAY ADJOURN THEM TO SUCH TIME AS HE SHALL THINK PROPER; HE SHALL RECEIVE AMBASSADORS AND OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS; HE SHALL TAKE CARE THAT THE LAWS BE FAITHFULLY EXECUTED, AND SHALL COMMISSION ALL THE OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES.

      4. SECTION 4

      5. THE PRESIDENT, VICE PRESIDENT AND ALL CIVIL OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE REMOVED FROM OFFICE ON IMPEACHMENT FOR, AND CONVICTION OF, TREASON, BRIBERY, OR OTHER HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS.

    3. ARTICLE III

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE VESTED IN ONE SUPREME COURT, AND IN SUCH INFERIOR COURTS AS THE CONGRESS MAY FROM TIME TO TIME ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH. THE JUDGES, BOTH OF THE SUPREME AND INFERIOR COURTS, SHALL HOLD THEIR OFFICES DURING GOOD BEHAVIOUR, AND SHALL, AT STATED TIMES, RECEIVE FOR THEIR SERVICES, A COMPENSATION, WHICH SHALL NOT BE DIMINISHED DURING THEIR CONTINUANCE IN OFFICE.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE JUDICIAL POWER SHALL EXTEND TO ALL CASES, IN LAW AND EQUITY, ARISING UNDER THIS CONSTITUTION, THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, AND TREATIES MADE, OR WHICH SHALL BE MADE, UNDER THEIR AUTHORITY;-TO ALL CASES AFFECTING AMBASSADORS, OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS AND CONSULS;-TO ALL CASES OF ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME JURISDICTION;-TO CONTROVERSIES TO WHICH THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE A PARTY;-TO CONTROVERSIES BETWEEN TWO OR MORE STATES;-BETWEEN A STATE AND CITIZENS OF ANOTHER STATE;-BETWEEN CITIZENS OF DIFFERENT STATES;-BETWEEN CITIZENS OF THE SAME STATE CLAIMING LANDS UNDER GRANTS OF DIFFERENT STATES, AND BETWEEN A STATE, OR THE CITIZENS THEREOF, AND FOREIGN STATES, CITIZENS OR SUBJECTS.

        2. IN ALL CASES AFFECTING AMBASSADORS, OTHER PUBLIC MINISTERS AND CONSULS, AND THOSE IN WHICH A STATE SHALL BE PARTY, THE SUPREME COURT SHALL HAVE ORIGINAL JURISDICTION. IN ALL THE OTHER CASES BEFORE MENTIONED, THE SUPREME COURT SHALL HAVE APPELLATE JURISDICTION, BOTH AS TO LAW AND FACT, WITH SUCH EXCEPTIONS, AND UNDER SUCH REGULATIONS AS THE CONGRESS SHALL MAKE.

        3. THE TRIAL OF ALL CRIMES, EXCEPT IN CASES OF IMPEACHMENT, SHALL BE BY JURY; AND SUCH TRIAL SHALL BE HELD IN THE STATE WHERE THE SAID CRIMES SHALL HAVE BEEN COMMITTED; BUT WHEN NOT COMMITTED WITHIN ANY STATE, THE TRIAL SHALL BE AT SUCH PLACE OR PLACES AS THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW HAVE DIRECTED.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. TREASON AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, SHALL CONSIST ONLY IN LEVYING WAR AGAINST THEM, OR IN ADHERING TO THEIR ENEMIES, GIVING THEM AID AND COMFORT. NO PERSON SHALL BE CONVICTED OF TREASON UNLESS ON THE TESTIMONY OF TWO WITNESSES TO THE SAME OVERT ACT, OR ON CONFESSION IN OPEN COURT.

        2. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO DECLARE THE PUNISHMENT OF TREASON, BUT NO ATTAINDER OF TREASON SHALL WORK CORRUPTION OF BLOOD, OR FORFEITURE EXCEPT DURING THE LIFE OF THE PERSON ATTAINTED.

    4. ARTICLE IV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. FULL FAITH AND CREDIT SHALL BE GIVEN IN EACH STATE TO THE PUBLIC ACTS, RECORDS, AND JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS OF EVERY OTHER STATE. AND THE CONGRESS MAY BY GENERAL LAWS PRESCRIBE THE MANNER IN WHICH SUCH ACTS, RECORDS AND PROCEEDINGS SHALL BE PROVED, AND THE EFFECT THEREOF.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CITIZENS OF EACH STATE SHALL BE ENTITLED TO ALL PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENS IN THE SEVERAL STATES.

        2. A PERSON CHARGED IN ANY STATE WITH TREASON, FELONY, OR OTHER CRIME, WHO SHALL FLEE FROM JUSTICE, AND BE FOUND IN ANOTHER STATE, SHALL ON DEMAND OF THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY OF THE STATE FROM WHICH HE FLED, BE DELIVERED UP, TO BE REMOVED TO THE STATE HAVING JURISDICTION OF THE CRIME.

        3. NO PERSON HELD TO SERVICE OR LABOUR IN ONE STATE, UNDER THE LAWS THEREOF, ESCAPING INTO ANOTHER, SHALL, IN CONSEQUENCE OF ANY LAW OR REGULATION THEREIN, BE DISCHARGED FROM SUCH SERVICE OR LABOUR, BUT SHALL BE DELIVERED UP ON CLAIM OF THE PARTY TO WHOM SUCH SERVICE OR LABOUR MAY BE DUE.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. NEW STATES MAY BE ADMITTED BY THE CONGRESS INTO THIS UNION; BUT NO NEW STATE SHALL BE FORMED OR ERECTED WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF ANY OTHER STATE; NOR ANY STATE BE FORMED BY THE JUNCTION OF TWO OR MORE STATES, OR PARTS OF STATES, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE LEGISLATURES OF THE STATES CONCERNED AS WELL AS OF THE CONGRESS.

        2. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO DISPOSE OF AND MAKE ALL NEEDFUL RULES AND REGULATIONS RESPECTING THE TERRITORY OR OTHER PROPERTY BELONGING TO THE UNITED STATES; AND NOTHING IN THIS CONSTITUTION SHALL BE SO CONSTRUED AS TO PREJUDICE ANY CLAIMS OF THE UNITED STATES, OR OF ANY PARTICULAR STATE.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE UNITED STATES SHALL GUARANTEE TO EVERY STATE IN THIS UNION A REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT, AND SHALL PROTECT EACH OF THEM AGAINST INVASION; AND ON APPLICATION OF THE LEGISLATURE, OR OF THE EXECUTIVE (WHEN THE LEGISLATURE CANNOT BE CONVENED) AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.

    5. ARTICLE V

      1. THE CONGRESS, WHENEVER TWO THIRDS OF BOTH HOUSES SHALL DEEM IT NECESSARY, SHALL PROPOSE AMENDMENTS TO THIS CONSTITUTION, OR, ON THE APPLICATION OF THE LEGISLATURES OF TWO THIRDS OF THE SEVERAL STATES, SHALL CALL A CONVENTION FOR PROPOSING AMENDMENTS, WHICH, IN EITHER CASE, SHALL BE VALID TO ALL INTENTS AND PURPOSES, AS PART OF THIS CONSTITUTION, WHEN RATIFIED BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THREE FOURTHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES, OR BY CONVENTIONS IN THREE FOURTHS THEREOF, AS THE ONE OR THE OTHER MODE OF RATIFICATION MAY BE PROPOSED BY THE CONGRESS; PROVIDED THAT NO AMENDMENT WHICH MAY BE MADE PRIOR TO THE YEAR ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND EIGHT SHALL IN ANY MANNER AFFECT THE FIRST AND FOURTH CLAUSES IN THE NINTH SECTION OF THE FIRST ARTICLE; AND THAT NO STATE, WITHOUT ITS CONSENT, SHALL BE DEPRIVED OF ITS EQUAL SUFFRAGE IN THE SENATE.

    6. ARTICLE VI

      1. ALL DEBTS CONTRACTED AND ENGAGEMENTS ENTERED INTO, BEFORE THE ADOPTION OF THIS CONSTITUTION, SHALL BE AS VALID AGAINST THE UNITED STATES UNDER THIS CONSTITUTION, AS UNDER THE CONFEDERATION.

      2. THIS CONSTITUTION, AND THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES WHICH SHALL BE MADE IN PURSUANCE THEREOF; AND ALL TREATIES MADE, OR WHICH SHALL BE MADE, UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL BE THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND; AND THE JUDGES IN EVERY STATE SHALL BE BOUND THEREBY, ANY THING IN THE CONSTITUTION OR LAWS OF ANY STATE TO THE CONTRARY NOTWITHSTANDING.

      3. THE SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES BEFORE MENTIONED, AND THE MEMBERS OF THE SEVERAL STATE LEGISLATURES, AND ALL EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS, BOTH OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF THE SEVERAL STATES, SHALL BE BOUND BY OATH OR AFFIRMATION, TO SUPPORT THIS CONSTITUTION; BUT NO RELIGIOUS TEST SHALL EVER BE REQUIRED AS A QUALIFICATION TO ANY OFFICE OR PUBLIC TRUST UNDER THE UNITED STATES.

    7. ARTICLE VII

      1. THE RATIFICATION OF THE CONVENTIONS OF NINE STATES, SHALL BE SUFFICIENT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THIS CONSTITUTION BETWEEN THE STATES SO RATIFYING THE SAME.

      2. DONE IN CONVENTION BY THE UNANIMOUS CONSENT OF THE STATES PRESENT THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF SEPTEMBER IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD ONE THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY SEVEN AND OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA THE TWELFTH. IN WITNESS WHEREOF WE HAVE HEREUNTO SUBSCRIBED OUR NAMES,

        1. GO. WASHINGTON-

          1. PRESIDT AND DEPUTY FROM VIRGINIA
        2. NEW HAMPSHIRE: JOHN LANGDON, NICHOLAS GILMAN.

        3. MASSACHUSETTS: NATHANIEL GORHAM, RUFUS KING.

        4. CONNECTICUT: WM. SAML. JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN.

        5. NEW YORK: ALEXANDER HAMILTON.

        6. NEW JERSEY: WIL: LIVINGSTON, DAVID BREARLEY, WM. PATERSON, JONA. DAYTON.

        7. PENNSYLVANIA: B. FRANKLIN, ROBT. MORRIS, THO: FITZSIMONS, JAMES WILSON, THOMAS MIFFLIN, GEO. CLYMER, JARED INGERSOLL, GOUV: MORRIS.

        8. DELAWARE: GEO: READ, JOHN DICKINSON, JACO: BROOM, GUNNING BEDFORD, JUN’R, RICHARD BASSETT.

        9. MARYLAND: JAMES M’HENRY, DANL CARROLL, DAN: OF ST. THOS. JENIFER.

        10. VIRGINIA: JOHN BLAIR, JAMES MADISON, JR.

        11. NORTH CAROLINA: WM. BLOUNT, HU. WILLIAMSON, RICH’D DOBBS SPAIGHT.

        12. SOUTH CAROLINA: J. RUTLEDGE, CHARLES PINCKNEY, CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, PIERCE BUTLER.

        13. GEORGIA WILLIAM: FEW, ABR. BALDWIN

        14. ATTEST: WILLIAM JACKSON, SECRETARY.

    8.  Current Presidential Signature? Hmm…

    9. Your Signature X _________________________________________________
    10. Your Notary’s Signature X________________________________________
    11. AMENDMENT I

      1. CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, OR PROHIBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOF; OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH, OR OF THE PRESS; OR THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE PEACEABLY TO ASSEMBLE, AND TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES.

    12. AMENDMENT II

      1. A WELL REGULATED MILITIA, BEING NECESSARY TO THE SECURITY OF A FREE STATE, THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS, SHALL NOT BE INFRINGED.

    13. AMENDMENT III

      1. NO SOLDIER SHALL, IN TIME OF PEACE BE QUARTERED IN ANY HOUSE, WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE OWNER, NOR IN TIME OF WAR, BUT IN A MANNER TO BE PRESCRIBED BY LAW.

    14. AMENDMENT IV

      1. THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO BE SECURE IN THEIR PERSONS, HOUSES, PAPERS, AND EFFECTS, AGAINST UNREASONABLE SEARCHES AND SEIZURES, SHALL NOT BE VIOLATED, AND NO WARRANTS SHALL ISSUE, BUT UPON PROBABLE CAUSE, SUPPORTED BY OATH OR AFFIRMATION, AND PARTICULARLY DESCRIBING THE PLACE TO BE SEARCHED, AND THE PERSONS OR THINGS TO BE SEIZED.

    15. AMENDMENT V

      1. NO PERSON SHALL BE HELD TO ANSWER FOR A CAPITAL, OR OTHERWISE INFAMOUS CRIME, UNLESS ON A PRESENTMENT OR INDICTMENT OF A GRAND JURY, EXCEPT IN CASES ARISING IN THE LAND OR NAVAL FORCES, OR IN THE MILITIA, WHEN IN ACTUAL SERVICE IN TIME OF WAR OR PUBLIC DANGER; NOR SHALL ANY PERSON BE SUBJECT FOR THE SAME OFFENCE TO BE TWICE PUT IN JEOPARDY OF LIFE OR LIMB; NOR SHALL BE COMPELLED IN ANY CRIMINAL CASE TO BE A WITNESS AGAINST HIMSELF, NOR BE DEPRIVED OF LIFE, LIBERTY, OR PROPERTY, WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW; NOR SHALL PRIVATE PROPERTY BE TAKEN FOR PUBLIC USE, WITHOUT JUST COMPENSATION.

    16. AMENDMENT VI

      1. IN ALL CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS, THE ACCUSED SHALL ENJOY THE RIGHT TO A SPEEDY AND PUBLIC TRIAL, BY AN IMPARTIAL JURY OF THE STATE AND DISTRICT WHEREIN THE CRIME SHALL HAVE BEEN COMMITTED, WHICH DISTRICT SHALL HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY ASCERTAINED BY LAW, AND TO BE INFORMED OF THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF THE ACCUSATION; TO BE CONFRONTED WITH THE WITNESSES AGAINST HIM; TO HAVE COMPULSORY PROCESS FOR OBTAINING WITNESSES IN HIS FAVOR, AND TO HAVE THE ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL FOR HIS DEFENCE.

    17. AMENDMENT VII

      1. IN SUITS AT COMMON LAW, WHERE THE VALUE IN CONTROVERSY SHALL EXCEED TWENTY DOLLARS, THE RIGHT OF TRIAL BY JURY SHALL BE PRESERVED, AND NO FACT TRIED BY A JURY, SHALL BE OTHERWISE RE-EXAMINED IN ANY COURT OF THE UNITED STATES, THAN ACCORDING TO THE RULES OF THE COMMON LAW.

    18. AMENDMENT VIII

      1. EXCESSIVE BAIL SHALL NOT BE REQUIRED, NOR EXCESSIVE FINES IMPOSED, NOR CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENTS INFLICTED.

    19. AMENDMENT IX

      1. THE ENUMERATION IN THE CONSTITUTION, OF CERTAIN RIGHTS, SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO DENY OR DISPARAGE OTHERS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE.

    20. AMENDMENT X

      1. THE POWERS NOT DELEGATED TO THE UNITED STATES BY THE CONSTITUTION, NOR PROHIBITED BY IT TO THE STATES, ARE RESERVED TO THE STATES RESPECTIVELY, OR TO THE PEOPLE.

    21. AMENDMENT XI

      1. THE JUDICIAL POWER OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO EXTEND TO ANY SUIT IN LAW OR EQUITY, COMMENCED OR PROSECUTED AGAINST ONE OF THE UNITED STATES BY CITIZENS OF ANOTHER STATE, OR BY CITIZENS OR SUBJECTS OF ANY FOREIGN STATE.

    22. AMENDMENT XII

      1. THE ELECTORS SHALL MEET IN THEIR RESPECTIVE STATES AND VOTE BY BALLOT FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT, ONE OF WHOM, AT LEAST, SHALL NOT BE AN INHABITANT OF THE SAME STATE WITH THEMSELVES; THEY SHALL NAME IN THEIR BALLOTS THE PERSON VOTED FOR AS PRESIDENT, AND IN DISTINCT BALLOTS THE PERSON VOTED FOR AS VICE-PRESIDENT, AND THEY SHALL MAKE DISTINCT LISTS OF ALL PERSONS VOTED FOR AS PRESIDENT, AND OF ALL PERSONS VOTED FOR AS VICE-PRESIDENT, AND OF THE NUMBER OF VOTES FOR EACH, WHICH LISTS THEY SHALL SIGN AND CERTIFY, AND TRANSMIT SEALED TO THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DIRECTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE;-THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE SHALL, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, OPEN ALL THE CERTIFICATES AND THE VOTES SHALL THEN BE COUNTED;-THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES FOR PRESIDENT, SHALL BE THE PRESIDENT, IF SUCH NUMBER BE A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF ELECTORS APPOINTED; AND IF NO PERSON HAVE SUCH MAJORITY, THEN FROM THE PERSONS HAVING THE HIGHEST NUMBERS NOT EXCEEDING THREE ON THE LIST OF THOSE VOTED FOR AS PRESIDENT, THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL CHOOSE IMMEDIATELY, BY BALLOT, THE PRESIDENT. BUT IN CHOOSING THE PRESIDENT, THE VOTES SHALL BE TAKEN BY STATES, THE REPRESENTATION FROM EACH STATE HAVING ONE VOTE; A QUORUM FOR THIS PURPOSE SHALL CONSIST OF A MEMBER OR MEMBERS FROM TWO-THIRDS OF THE STATES, AND A MAJORITY OF ALL THE STATES SHALL BE NECESSARY TO A CHOICE. AND IF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL NOT CHOOSE A PRESIDENT WHENEVER THE RIGHT OF CHOICE SHALL DEVOLVE UPON THEM, BEFORE THE FOURTH DAY OF MARCH NEXT FOLLOWING, THEN THE VICE-PRESIDENT SHALL ACT AS PRESIDENT, AS IN THE CASE OF THE DEATH OR OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL DISABILITY OF THE PRESIDENT-THE PERSON HAVING THE GREATEST NUMBER OF VOTES AS VICE-PRESIDENT, SHALL BE THE VICE-PRESIDENT, IF SUCH NUMBER BE A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF ELECTORS APPOINTED, AND IF NO PERSON HAVE A MAJORITY, THEN FROM THE TWO HIGHEST NUMBERS ON THE LIST, THE SENATE SHALL CHOOSE THE VICE-PRESIDENT; A QUORUM FOR THE PURPOSE SHALL CONSIST OF TWO-THIRDS OF THE WHOLE NUMBER OF SENATORS, AND A MAJORITY OF THE WHOLE NUMBER SHALL BE NECESSARY TO A CHOICE. BUT NO PERSON CONSTITUTIONALLY INELIGIBLE TO THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT SHALL BE ELIGIBLE TO THAT OF VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

    23. AMENDMENT XIII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. NEITHER SLAVERY NOR INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, EXCEPT AS A PUNISHMENT FOR CRIME WHEREOF THE PARTY SHALL HAVE BEEN DULY CONVICTED, SHALL EXIST WITHIN THE UNITED STATES, OR ANY PLACE SUBJECT TO THEIR JURISDICTION.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    24. AMENDMENT XIV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. ALL PERSONS BORN OR NATURALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES AND SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF, ARE CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF THE STATE WHEREIN THEY RESIDE. NO STATE SHALL MAKE OR ENFORCE ANY LAW WHICH SHALL ABRIDGE THE PRIVILEGES OR IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; NOR SHALL ANY STATE DEPRIVE ANY PERSON OF LIFE, LIBERTY, OR PROPERTY, WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW; NOR DENY TO ANY PERSON WITHIN ITS JURISDICTION THE EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. REPRESENTATIVES SHALL BE APPORTIONED AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES ACCORDING TO THEIR RESPECTIVE NUMBERS, COUNTING THE WHOLE NUMBER OF PERSONS IN EACH STATE, EXCLUDING INDIANS NOT TAXED. BUT WHEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE AT ANY ELECTION FOR THE CHOICE OF ELECTORS FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS, THE EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS OF A STATE, OR THE MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE THEREOF, IS DENIED TO ANY OF THE MALE INHABITANTS OF SUCH STATE, BEING TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE, AND CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES, OR IN ANY WAY ABRIDGED, EXCEPT FOR PARTICIPATION IN REBELLION, OR OTHER CRIME, THE BASIS OF REPRESENTATION THEREIN SHALL BE REDUCED IN THE PROPORTION WHICH THE NUMBER OF SUCH MALE CITIZENS SHALL BEAR TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF MALE CITIZENS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE IN SUCH STATE.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. NO PERSON SHALL BE A SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS, OR ELECTOR OF PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT, OR HOLD ANY OFFICE, CIVIL OR MILITARY, UNDER THE UNITED STATES, OR UNDER ANY STATE, WHO, HAVING PREVIOUSLY TAKEN AN OATH, AS A MEMBER OF CONGRESS, OR AS AN OFFICER OF THE UNITED STATES, OR AS A MEMBER OF ANY STATE LEGISLATURE, OR AS AN EXECUTIVE OR JUDICIAL OFFICER OF ANY STATE, TO SUPPORT THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, SHALL HAVE ENGAGED IN INSURRECTION OR REBELLION AGAINST THE SAME, OR GIVEN AID OR COMFORT TO THE ENEMIES THEREOF. BUT CONGRESS MAY BY A VOTE OF TWO-THIRDS OF EACH HOUSE, REMOVE SUCH DISABILITY.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE VALIDITY OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OF THE UNITED STATES, AUTHORIZED BY LAW, INCLUDING DEBTS INCURRED FOR PAYMENT OF PENSIONS AND BOUNTIES FOR SERVICES IN SUPPRESSING INSURRECTION OR REBELLION, SHALL NOT BE QUESTIONED. BUT NEITHER THE UNITED STATES NOR ANY STATE SHALL ASSUME OR PAY ANY DEBT OR OBLIGATION INCURRED IN AID OF INSURRECTION OR REBELLION AGAINST THE UNITED STATES, OR ANY CLAIM FOR THE LOSS OR EMANCIPATION OF ANY SLAVE; BUT ALL SUCH DEBTS, OBLIGATIONS AND CLAIMS SHALL BE HELD ILLEGAL AND VOID.

      5. SECTION 5

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE, BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION, THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ARTICLE.

    25. AMENDMENT XV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF RACE, COLOR, OR PREVIOUS CONDITION OF SERVITUDE.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    26. AMENDMENT XVI

      1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO LAY AND COLLECT TAXES ON INCOMES, FROM WHATEVER SOURCE DERIVED, WITHOUT APPORTIONMENT AMONG THE SEVERAL STATES, AND WITHOUT REGARD TO ANY CENSUS OR ENUMERATION.

    27. AMENDMENT XVII

      1. THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL BE COMPOSED OF TWO SENATORS FROM EACH STATE, ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE THEREOF, FOR SIX YEARS; AND EACH SENATOR SHALL HAVE ONE VOTE. THE ELECTORS IN EACH STATE SHALL HAVE THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUISITE FOR ELECTORS OF THE MOST NUMEROUS BRANCH OF THE STATE LEGISLATURES.

      2. WHEN VACANCIES HAPPEN IN THE REPRESENTATION OF ANY STATE IN THE SENATE, THE EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY OF SUCH STATE SHALL ISSUE WRITS OF ELECTION TO FILL SUCH VACANCIES: PROVIDED, THAT THE LEGISLATURE OF ANY STATE MAY EMPOWER THE EXECUTIVE THEREOF TO MAKE TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS UNTIL THE PEOPLE FILL THE VACANCIES BY ELECTION AS THE LEGISLATURE MAY DIRECT.

      3. THIS AMENDMENT SHALL NOT BE SO CONSTRUED AS TO AFFECT THE ELECTION OR TERM OF ANY SENATOR CHOSEN BEFORE IT BECOMES VALID AS PART OF THE CONSTITUTION.

    28. AMENDMENT XVIII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. AFTER ONE YEAR FROM THE RATIFICATION OF THIS ARTICLE THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR TRANSPORTATION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS WITHIN, THE IMPORTATION THEREOF INTO, OR THE EXPORTATION THEREOF FROM THE UNITED STATES AND ALL TERRITORY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF FOR BEVERAGE PURPOSES IS HEREBY PROHIBITED.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS AND THE SEVERAL STATES SHALL HAVE CONCURRENT POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION, WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE SUBMISSION HEREOF TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS.

    29. AMENDMENT XIX

      1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF SEX.

      2. CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    30. AMENDMENT XX

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE TERMS OF THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT SHALL END AT NOON ON THE 20TH DAY OF JANUARY, AND THE TERMS OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES AT NOON ON THE 3D DAY OF JANUARY, OF THE YEARS IN WHICH SUCH TERMS WOULD HAVE ENDED IF THIS ARTICLE HAD NOT BEEN RATIFIED; AND THE TERMS OF THEIR SUCCESSORS SHALL THEN BEGIN.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL ASSEMBLE AT LEAST ONCE IN EVERY YEAR, AND SUCH MEETING SHALL BEGIN AT NOON ON THE 3D DAY OF JANUARY, UNLESS THEY SHALL BY LAW APPOINT A DIFFERENT DAY.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. IF, AT THE TIME FIXED FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE TERM OF THE PRESIDENT, THE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL HAVE DIED, THE VICE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL BECOME PRESIDENT. IF A PRESIDENT SHALL NOT HAVE BEEN CHOSEN BEFORE THE TIME FIXED FOR THE BEGINNING OF HIS TERM, OR IF THE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL HAVE FAILED TO QUALIFY, THEN THE VICE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL ACT AS PRESIDENT UNTIL A PRESIDENT SHALL HAVE QUALIFIED; AND THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE FOR THE CASE WHEREIN NEITHER A PRESIDENT ELECT NOR A VICE PRESIDENT ELECT SHALL HAVE QUALIFIED, DECLARING WHO SHALL THEN ACT AS PRESIDENT, OR THE MANNER IN WHICH ONE WHO IS TO ACT SHALL BE SELECTED, AND SUCH PERSON SHALL ACT ACCORDINGLY UNTIL A PRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT SHALL HAVE QUALIFIED.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. THE CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE FOR THE CASE OF THE DEATH OF ANY OF THE PERSONS FROM WHOM THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MAY CHOOSE A PRESIDENT WHENEVER THE RIGHT OF CHOICE SHALL HAVE DEVOLVED UPON THEM, AND FOR THE CASE OF THE DEATH OF ANY OF THE PERSONS FROM WHOM THE SENATE MAY CHOOSE A VICE PRESIDENT WHENEVER THE RIGHT OF CHOICE SHALL HAVE DEVOLVED UPON THEM.

      5. SECTION 5

        1. SECTIONS 1 AND 2 SHALL TAKE EFFECT ON THE 15TH DAY OF OCTOBER FOLLOWING THE RATIFICATION OF THIS ARTICLE.

      6. SECTION 6

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THREE-FOURTHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF ITS SUBMISSION.

    31. AMENDMENT XXI

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE EIGHTEENTH ARTICLE OF AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES IS HEREBY REPEALED.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE TRANSPORTATION OR IMPORTATION INTO ANY STATE, TERRITORY, OR POSSESSION OF THE UNITED STATES FOR DELIVERY OR USE THEREIN OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS, IN VIOLATION OF THE LAWS THEREOF, IS HEREBY PROHIBITED.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY CONVENTIONS IN THE SEVERAL STATES, AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION, WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE SUBMISSION HEREOF TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS.

    32. AMENDMENT XXII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. NO PERSON SHALL BE ELECTED TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT MORE THAN TWICE, AND NO PERSON WHO HAS HELD THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, OR ACTED AS PRESIDENT, FOR MORE THAN TWO YEARS OF A TERM TO WHICH SOME OTHER PERSON WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT SHALL BE ELECTED TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT MORE THAN ONCE. BUT THIS ARTICLE SHALL NOT APPLY TO ANY PERSON HOLDING THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, WHEN THIS ARTICLE WAS PROPOSED BY THE CONGRESS, AND SHALL NOT PREVENT ANY PERSON WHO MAY BE HOLDING THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, OR ACTING AS PRESIDENT, DURING THE TERM WITHIN WHICH THIS ARTICLE BECOMES OPERATIVE FROM HOLDING THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT OR ACTING AS PRESIDENT DURING THE REMAINDER OF SUCH TERM.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THREE-FOURTHS OF THE SEVERAL STATES WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF ITS SUBMISSION TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS.

    33. AMENDMENT XXIII

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE DISTRICT CONSTITUTING THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES SHALL APPOINT IN SUCH MANNER AS THE CONGRESS MAY DIRECT:

        2. A NUMBER OF ELECTORS OF PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT EQUAL TO THE WHOLE NUMBER OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS TO WHICH THE DISTRICT WOULD BE ENTITLED IF IT WERE A STATE, BUT IN NO EVENT MORE THAN THE LEAST POPULOUS STATE; THEY SHALL BE IN ADDITION TO THOSE APPOINTED BY THE STATES, BUT THEY SHALL BE CONSIDERED, FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE ELECTION OF PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT, TO BE ELECTORS APPOINTED BY A STATE; AND THEY SHALL MEET IN THE DISTRICT AND PERFORM SUCH DUTIES AS PROVIDED BY THE TWELFTH ARTICLE OF AMENDMENT.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    34. AMENDMENT XXIV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES TO VOTE IN ANY PRIMARY OR OTHER ELECTION FOR PRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT FOR ELECTORS FOR PRESIDENT OR VICE PRESIDENT, OR FOR SENATOR OR REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS, SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR ANY STATE BY REASON OF FAILURE TO PAY ANY POLL TAX OR OTHER TAX.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    35. AMENDMENT XXV

      1. SECTION 1

        1. IN CASE OF THE REMOVAL OF THE PRESIDENT FROM OFFICE OR OF HIS DEATH OR RESIGNATION, THE VICE PRESIDENT SHALL BECOME PRESIDENT.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. WHENEVER THERE IS A VACANCY IN THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT, THE PRESIDENT SHALL NOMINATE A VICE PRESIDENT WHO SHALL TAKE OFFICE UPON CONFIRMATION BY A MAJORITY VOTE OF BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS.

      3. SECTION 3

        1. WHENEVER THE PRESIDENT TRANSMITS TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HIS WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT HE IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE, AND UNTIL HE TRANSMITS TO THEM A WRITTEN DECLARATION TO THE CONTRARY, SUCH POWERS AND DUTIES SHALL BE DISCHARGED BY THE VICE PRESIDENT AS ACTING PRESIDENT.

      4. SECTION 4

        1. WHENEVER THE VICE PRESIDENT AND A MAJORITY OF EITHER THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OR OF SUCH OTHER BODY AS CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE, TRANSMIT TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES THEIR WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT THE PRESIDENT IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE, THE VICE PRESIDENT SHALL IMMEDIATELY ASSUME THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE OFFICE AS ACTING PRESIDENT.

        2. THEREAFTER, WHEN THE PRESIDENT TRANSMITS TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HIS WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT NO INABILITY EXISTS, HE SHALL RESUME THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE UNLESS THE VICE PRESIDENT AND A MAJORITY OF EITHER THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT OR OF SUCH OTHER BODY AS CONGRESS MAY BY LAW PROVIDE, TRANSMIT WITHIN FOUR DAYS TO THE PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE AND THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES THEIR WRITTEN DECLARATION THAT THE PRESIDENT IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE. THEREUPON CONGRESS SHALL DECIDE THE ISSUE, ASSEMBLING WITHIN FORTY-EIGHT HOURS FOR THAT PURPOSE IF NOT IN SESSION. IF THE CONGRESS, WITHIN TWENTY-ONE DAYS AFTER RECEIPT OF THE LATTER WRITTEN DECLARATION, OR, IF CONGRESS IS NOT IN SESSION, WITHIN TWENTY-ONE DAYS AFTER CONGRESS IS REQUIRED TO ASSEMBLE, DETERMINES BY TWO-THIRDS VOTE OF BOTH HOUSES THAT THE PRESIDENT IS UNABLE TO DISCHARGE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE, THE VICE PRESIDENT SHALL CONTINUE TO DISCHARGE THE SAME AS ACTING PRESIDENT; OTHERWISE, THE PRESIDENT SHALL RESUME THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE.

    36. AMENDMENT XXVI

      1. SECTION 1

        1. THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES, WHO ARE EIGHTEEN YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, TO VOTE SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF AGE.

      2. SECTION 2

        1. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION.

    37. AMENDMENT XXVII

      1. NO LAW VARYING THE COMPENSATION FOR THE SERVICES OF THE SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES SHALL TAKE EFFECT, UNTIL AN ELECTION OF REPRESENTATIVES SHALL HAVE INTERVENED.

    38. So what is the Constitution of the United States?

      1. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the United States. Empowered with the sovereign authority of the people by the framers and the consent of the legislatures of the states, it is the source of all government powers, and also provides important limitations on the government that protect the fundamental rights of United States citizens.

  180. Uruguay 1966 (reinst. 1985, rev. 2004)
  181. Uzbekistan 1992 (rev. 2011)
  182. Vanuatu 1980 (rev. 1983)
  183. Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1999 (rev. 2009)
  184. Viet Nam 1992 (rev. 2013)
  185. Zambia 1991 (rev. 2009)
  186. Zimbabwe 2013…And who’s next?

Alternative Resources for Study of State Constitutions of the World

    1. Constitute was developed by the authors of the Comparative Constitutions Project at the University of Texas at Austin. It was seeded with a grant from Google Ideas, with additional financial support from the Indigo Trust and IC2. Arabic Constitute was developed in partnership with International IDEA, which provided significant intellectual and material support. Semantic data structures were created by the Miranker Lab at the University of Texas using Capsenta‘s Ultrawrap. Site architecture, engineering, and design are provided by Psycle Interactive.
      The following organizations have made important investments in the Comparative Constitutions Project since 2005: the National Science Foundation (SES 0648288, IIS 1018554), the Cline Center for Democracy, the United States Institute of Peace, the University of Texas, the University of Chicago, and the Constitution Unit at University College London.
      Any inquiries should be addressed to constitute.project@gmail.com.

    2. Contact
      John Paul Jones, Professor of Law Emeritus, University of Richmond School of Law

    3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_national_constitutions

Constitutional government

Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution—which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the polity—that effectively controls the exercise of political power. The essence of constitutionalism is the control of power by its distribution among several state organs or offices in such a way that they are each subjected to reciprocal controls and forced to cooperate in formulating the will of the state. Although constitutional government in this sense flourished in England and in some other historical systems for a considerable period, it is only recently that it has been associated with forms of mass participation in politics. In England, for example, constitutional government was not harnessed to political democracy until after the Reform Act of 1832 and subsequent 19th-century extensions of the suffrage. In the contemporary world, however, constitutional governments are also generally democracies, and in most cases they are referred to as constitutional democracies or constitutional-democratic systems.

The contemporary political systems that combine constitutionalism and democracy share a common basis in the primacy they accord to the will of the majority of the people as expressed in free elections. In all such systems, political parties are key institutions, for they are the agencies by which majority opinion in a modern mass electorate is mobilized and expressed. Indeed, the history of the political party in its modern form is coincidental with the development of contemporary constitutional-democratic systems. In each case, the transition from the older forms of constitutionalism to modern constitutional democracy was accompanied by the institutionalization of parties and the development of techniques of party competition. The essential functions of political parties in a constitutional democracy are the integration of a multitude of interests, beliefs, and values into one or more programs or proposals for change and the nomination of party members for elective office in the government. In both functions, the party serves as a link between the rulers and the ruled: in the first case by allowing the electorate to register an opinion on policy and in the second by giving the people a chance to choose their rulers. Of course, the centralized, autocratically directed, and ideologically orthodox one-party systems of totalitarian regimes perform neither of these functions.

The two major types of constitutional democracy in the modern world are exemplified by the United States and Great Britain. The United States is the leading example of the presidential system of constitutional democracy; Britain, although its system is sometimes referred to as a cabinet system in recognition of the role of the cabinet in the government, is the classic example of the parliamentary system. The U.S. presidential system is based on the doctrine of separation of powers and distinguishes sharply between the personnel of the legislature and the executive; the British parliamentary system provides for the integration or fusion of legislature and executive. In the U.S. system the separation of legislature and executive is reinforced by their separate election and by the doctrine of checks and balances that provides constitutional support for routine disagreements between the branches; in the British system the integration of legislature and executive is reinforced by the necessity for their constant agreement, or for a condition of “confidence” between the two, if the normal processes of government are to continue. In the U.S. system reciprocal controls are provided by such devices as the presidential veto of legislation (which may be overridden by a two-thirds majority in Congress), the Senate’s role in ratifying treaties and confirming executive nominations, congressional appropriation of funds and the exclusive ability to declare war, and judicial review of legislation; in the British system the major control device is the vote of “no confidence” or the rejection of legislation that is considered vital.

A third type of constitutional democracy is the hybrid presidential-parliamentary system, exemplified by the government of France. In such systems there is both a directly elected president with substantial executive powers and a presidentially appointed prime minister, who must retain majority support in the legislature. If the president’s party or coalition also controls a legislative majority, the prime minister is generally a secondary figure, responsible for the day-to-day running of the government. However, the office of prime minister becomes more important when one party or coalition controls the presidency and a rival party or coalition retains majority support in the legislature. During such periods the president generally appoints the leader of the legislative majority as prime minister.

Most national societies have passed through a stage in their social and political development, usually referred to as feudalism, in which a weak and ineffectively organized national government competes for territorial jurisdiction with local power holders. In medieval England and France, for example, the crown was perennially threatened by the power of the feudal nobles, and a protracted struggle was necessary before the national domain was subjected to full royal control. Elsewhere, innumerable societies continued to experience this kind of feudal conflict between local magnates and the central government well into the modern era. The warlords of 19th- and 20th-century China, for example, were just as much the products of feudal society as the warring barons of 13th-century England and presented the same kind of challenge to the central government’s claim to exercise sovereign jurisdiction over the national territory. By the 1970s, feudalism was almost extinct. The social patterns that had formerly supported the power of local landowners were rapidly disappearing, and central governments had generally acquired a near monopoly of communications and military technology, enabling them to project their power into areas once controlled by local rulers.

In nearly all national political systems, central governments are better equipped than ever before to exercise effective jurisdiction over their territories. In much of the developing world, nationalist political movements and a variety of modern economic forces have swept away the traditional structures of local government, and the quasi-autonomous governments of village and tribe and province have been replaced by centrally directed systems of subnational administration. Even in the heavily industrialized states of the modern world, there has been an accelerating tendency toward greater centralization of power at the national level. In the United States, for example, the structure of relationships among the governments at the national, state, and local levels has changed in a number of ways to add to the power of the federal government in Washington. Even though the system of national grants-in-aid appears to have been designed as a means of decentralizing administration, the effect has been decidedly centralist, for the conditional character of the grants has allowed the federal government to exercise influence on state policies in fields that were once invulnerable to national intervention

Toward a Constitution Of Earth

  1. What Should World Governance Look Like?

    1. There is no right answer to this question yet, because there is no model to follow.
    2. Increasingly, global problems exceed the grasp of national governance.
    3. The following essay we thought a good start at thinking it through.
    4. Feel free to add to the work others have done so far below.
    5. The essay:
  1. So What Should World Governance Look Like?

    1. Life on Earth is far from perfect, and we have many issues that need tackling before we can claim to be putting care for life over care for profit. Framing these everyday circumstances against a much bigger picture, some have posed the concern that the galaxy will succumb to capitalism.
    2. ANASTASIA ROMANOU, A CLIMATE RESEARCH SCIENTIST FOR COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND NASA’S GODDARD INSTITUTE FOR SPACE STUDIES, PRESENTED THE IDEA — THAT THE DESIRE TO EXPLORE EXOPLANETS AND MINE ASTEROIDS IS THE DIRECT RESULT OF THE NEED TO NOURISH CAPITALISM — RECENTLY AT THE LEFT FORUM CONFERENCE IN MANHATTAN:
      1. [EXOPLANET EXPLORATION] HAS BEEN MASKED AS A SCIENTIFIC INTEREST, A HUMAN INTEREST, AND HUMAN CURIOSITY TO EXPLORE DIFFERENT WORLDS. LATE ERA CAPITALISM IS FEELING THE PRESSURE FROM RESOURCE SCARCITY, AND THEREFORE, IT HAS TO FIND ITS OWN WAY OUT. IT CANNOT THINK OUTSIDE ITS OWN BOX OF SOLUTIONS, AND IT WILL HAVE TO FIND ANOTHER PLACE, AND ANOTHER PLACE, AND ANOTHER PLACE TO EXPLOIT.
      2. ACCORDING TO ROMANOU, AS A RESULT OF OUR DESIRE TO GROW CAPITALISM, EXOPLANETS WILL BE MINED FOR MINERALS AND DRILLED FOR OIL, JUST LIKE OUR PLANET WAS.
    3. THE IDEA OF “LATE CAPITALISM” INVOLVES CAPITALIST ECONOMY, AS WE KNOW IT, COMING TO AN END. ITS FINAL DAYS WILL BE MARKED BY RESOURCE SHORTAGES AND WEAKENED MANUFACTURING PRACTICES.
    4. KAI KASCHINSKI, A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE FAIR OCEANS ORGANIZATION, GAVE ADDITIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE SUBJECT, RELATING THE FUTURE FATE OF EXOPLANETS AND ASTEROIDS TO THAT OF OUR OCEANS, CURRENTLY BEING INDEPENDENTLY ACQUIRED FOR MINING BY RESOURCE EXTRACTION COMPANIES. HE EVEN NOTED THAT THE 2015 U.S. COMMERCIAL SPACE LAUNCH COMPETITIVENESS ACT, WHICH PERMITS UNITED STATES CITIZENS (AMERICAN COMPANIES) TO MINE CELESTIAL BODIES LIKE ASTEROIDS FOR VALUABLE MINERALS, MIGHT ACTUALLY VIOLATE THE Outer Space Treaty of 1967, BECAUSE THE TREATY DIDN’T SPECIFY WHO WAS ALLOWED TO MINE ASTEROIDS.
      1. KASCHINSKI SAID:
        1. The argument of the government was that there is an international law of the sea, which makes it possible to dig in international ocean bottoms. So the government adopted the opinion that if you can dig in this area of common heritage of mankind, you can also dig around in the common heritage of mankind elsewhere in space.
    5. ASTEROID MINING REMAINS JUST AN IDEA FOR THE MOMENT. DESPITE OBVIOUS ENGINEERING AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN PLAY, HOWEVER, TECHNOLOGY IS UNDERWAY TO MAKE IT A REALITY.
      1. For instance, Planetary Resources hopes to get telescopes to analyze asteroids before craft are sent to mine them. The company has some promising backers, and believes it could be operating in space by 2025. Deep Space Industries will survey a near-Earth asteroid for water that it could have spacecraft mine for use as propulsion steam, with the stated goal of unlimited economic expansion. Advances in 3-D printing, even in zero gravity, and AI seem to point toward the possibility of self-sustained unmanned machines, named for John von Neumann, to self-replicate and robotically explore and exploit vast areas of nearby galactic neighborhood.
      2. Meanwhile, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has over 2,000 exoplanet discoveries under its belt, 21 of which lie in a “habitable zone.”
      3. Life on other planets was once merely for the movies, but with the reality looming near, concerns over whether we will export dangerous behaviors and algorithms to exoplanets should be addressed sooner rather than later.
  2. Goodbye representative democracy & capitalism – it was fun

    1. THIS IS AN ATTEMPT TO LOOK AT CURRENT GLOBAL PROBLEMS FROM A PERSPECTIVE DIGGING DEEPER INTO THE ROOT OF THE SYSTEM. FOR AS EINSTEIN SAID, “A PROBLEM CANNOT BE SOLVED FROM THE SAME LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS AS CREATED IT.” IT IS ALSO AN ATTEMPT AT PHRASING IT SO THAT IT BUILDS THE BETTER ARGUMENTS TO CHALLENGE THE CONVENTIONS AND OFFER ALTERNATIVES THAT SHIFT THE PARADIGM. DISCLAIMER: IT WILL NOT BE PERFECT. YOU WILL DISAGREE AT TIMES, AND MAY FIND IMPERFECT ARGUMENTS AND/OR REASONING. I ASK YOU TO HELP US IMPROVE OR BUILD YOUR OWN NEW IDEAS ASIDE, ON TOP, OR UNDERNEATH IT. STORIES THAT LIBERATE US FROM CURRENT STUCK PARADIGMS ARE DESPERATELY NEEDED AND HOPEFUL ALTERNATIVES OFFERED. WORLDWIDE MANY ALREADY ARE JOINING THE CREATIVES. MANY THINGS ARE IMPROVING. THERE IS HOPE! YET, SOMEHOW WHAT MAKES SENSE FOR US, DOESN’T YET MAKE SENSE FOR THE MAJORITY. MOST HAVE YET TO BEGIN TO SEE OR ACCEPT THAT HUMANITY IS MOORED IN A DAMAGING SYSTEM. THIS PIECE WAS ORIGINALLY CONTRIBUTED BY FLORIS KOOT AND WAS ORIGINALLY POSTED ON MEDIUM. IT WAS REPOSTED WITH PERMISSION UNDER CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE.
    2. Currently The Biggest Problems on Our Planet

      1. Destruction of Natural Capacity
        1. We ravage our ecological systems to the point of degradation for the profits of parties who’ll do anything to keep their profits rising. Yeah, corporations consciously deliver stuff of which 85% is refuse in the making. It is produced to be outdated, break, or out of fashion soon. And despite the waste we buy it and ask for more.
      2. Poisoning of seas and systems
        1. So who is really busy preventing plastic from entering our oceans, soon to be present at nano-level in all our food? Who limits the amount of oestrogens (estrogens in America) from rising in our systems, damaging fertility of men? Who stops the rising amounts of waste that leak to endanger humans and nature? Have you heard governments crying out loud? We cannot let it be only a tragedy of the commons in our future.
      3. Widening gap between poor and rich
        1. The poor either turn to crime, ravaging what few resources still available or turn aggressive to those believed to be competitors. The answer can’t be harsher laws or corporate owned prisons. And the promise of more jobs when you vote the right person isn’t really addressing the core of the issue.
      4. Wars instigated by elites that only benefit a few (themselves)
        1. For instance Syria entered its disastrous civil war in part to decide whether a gas pipeline would benefit the Russian Elite or the Western Elite. Who will get the right to sell us stuff (gas in this case) for what price? Why don’t we better restrain our own side from entering wars than succumbing to fear of the other?
      5. Divisions to conquer
        1. The playing out of differences between populations, through means of religion, nationality, race, gender, etc. is endemic. ‘Leaders’ love this. Anyone with (imposed) fears, low self-esteem, endangered jobs, who has learned racial bias or rigid beliefs readily follows their leader. Disagreement could mark one as outcast or traitor.
      6.     Anomie, a rise of depression and disconnectedness from life and meaning
        1. Most work is organized around process and efficiency, rather than around meaning, diversification, healthiness for natural systems, being of real service to real needs, rather than boosting sales for profit. But we want the security of a career, so we don’t have time to challenge this idea. We’d rather secretly feel the pain of disconnection. For-profit careers which rationally coerce damage to people, places and planet often return large bonuses to those who conduct them.
      7.     The dangers of a financial system collapse
        1. Isn’t it scary and totally ridiculous that when a financial system collapses millions will go poor and probably hungry, while there is plenty enough food, manpower and means to provide for everyone? That indicates the whole system is built on wrong assumptions and rules…which force all the people to play along in hopes of preventing banks from failing. Hmm.
      8. Limits to Adaptation
        1. Perhaps the biggest problem of the future, and in some senses it is already with us, is our adaptive limit. These limits to adaptability occur on both ends of the spectrum from under-adaption to inadaptability.
          1. We too little adapt while it is possible. Rather than change our own ways big corporations will sell us complex medications to treat our symptoms. We’ll be an overweight smoking junk food eater who buys expensive medicines, but does not change behavior. And the side effects of the medications will employ additional medicines. But hey, if you sell medicine, true healing means no sales, right? Thus the assumptions beneath our whole profit-based health outlook remains sick as well.
          2. We eventually run up against our inability to adapt and adaptation becomes impossible. Rather than be proactive to plan and implement adaptations that are doable without disruption, we wait until problems become immense, complicated and critical only to find that our capacity to adapt is then no longer sufficient.
          3. We may find that problems grow so large and knotty that we physically cannot cope, and these cause deaths of individuals, reduction of biodiversity and species extinctions.
      9. Solving the Problems of Healthy Governance

        1. DO YOU RECOGNIZE THESE PROBLEMS AND HOW HARD THEY SEEM TO SOLVE OR EVEN ADDRESS? ARE ENOUGH PEOPLE EMPLOYED TO WORK ON THEM? WE HAVE TO CONSIDER THAT MOST PEOPLE ON OUR PLANET INDEED WANT PEACE, A HOPEFUL FUTURE FOR CHILDREN AND A WARM FAMILY AND COMMUNITY LIFE. NO DOUBT WE CARE ABOUT HEALTHY GOVERNANCE. BUT OF COURSE IT IS SCARY CHALLENGING THEN CHANGING THE WAY THAT THINGS ARE, BECAUSE NO ONE KNOWS WHAT WE MIGHT END UP WITH IN RETURN.
        2. FOR A SECURE FUTURE THIS MUCH IS CLEAR: BEING CONNECTED TO NATURE IS ESSENTIAL. HAVING ENOUGH THAT IS NATURAL, LIVING BLOOMING SYSTEMS FLOURISHING AROUND US, IS KEY TO FEELING PEACEFUL, BUILDING TRUST WITH OTHERS AND KNOWING WE ARE AN IMPORTANT PART OF A LIVING ECOSYSTEM. WE ARE NATURE. SO HOW SHALL WE SUPPORT OUR ROLES WITHIN AND TOWARD NATURE AND THAT HOLISTIC SYSTEM CALLED MOTHER EARTH? HOW CAN WE SHIFT TO PROVIDE FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS OF HUMANS AND ALL OTHER LIVING THINGS?
      10. Our Old Solutions Don’t Work

        1. MONARCHY
          1. We’ve tried kingdoms. Didn’t work. Great kings and queens inspired their people with ideals (symbols of national power, etc.). The children of great kings can become awful. And one ruler taking all decisions is already a bad idea.
        2. COMMUNALITY
          1. We’ve tried statewide communism. Isn’t it great to be liberated from a self-serving elite…only to be replaced by statist elite? It didn’t work, because top-down economic planning could not handle the complexity of human society and no one wants to be just the same as everyone else. And the future is inherently unstable, incapable of conforming to any brittle plan. 5-year top-down plans made millions suffer. And the distribution of needed goods sucked.
        3. MONOPOLY
          1. We are still trying capitalism. The distribution has been great. As has been the marketing claiming that it’s all simply great. Yet it isn’t. It doesn’t work, because everybody fending for themselves inevitably damages the system as a whole. The promise that competition will improve products and service for everyone has not born out. We can’t trust our food and we can’t trust our medicines anymore, as corporate profits seem more important than the consequences for people, nature and the planet. And the corporate lobbies turning governments into their personal champions threatens an even more ravaged planet under an expanding superrich elite. The danger of fascist Corporate Plutocracy is real, and might have already begun in some places while the trappings of democratic elections continue.
        4. DEMOCRACY
          1. We are still trying out representative democracy. Oh, the nice promises. Yet what we have is the choice between a few preselected candidates of an elite. Also democracy doesn’t work when people vote for their personal shopping basket while ‘leaders’ seek to divide and conquer (by promising particular sectarian dreams, rather than uniting and caring for the people as a whole). And most leaders serve the hands that feed them. Today these are mostly huge corporations and other extremely wealthy patrons. Have you seen any democratic government really solving any of the world’s problems as listed above? By only blaming ‘them’ while coveting votes to strengthen a sectarian agenda, real issues fester and our problems grow.
      11. The Root of the Problem

        1. WHAT IS CLEAR IS THAT A SMALL MINORITY OF HUMANS ARE WILLING TO LIE, CHEAT, AND MANIPULATE ALL OTHERS FOR POWER AND RICHES. MANY PEOPLE ARE CAUGHT IN DAMAGING PARADIGMS THAT RESULT OF THIS. THEY TOO WILL SUPPORT THE MANIPULATIVE ONES. THEY ENDORSE FALSE DICHOTOMIES LIKE: ‘IT’S EITHER US OR THEM’. ‘MY BELIEF IS SO MUCH MORE WORTHY THAN YOURS, SO YOUR VOICE MAY BE SILENCED IF YOU THREATEN MY POSITION (OR EVEN JUST SPEAK OUT)’. IDEAS OFTEN REHASHED AS ‘MAKE ME RICH OR MORE POWERFUL, AND YOU’LL BENEFIT FROM IT’ OR ‘LET US RAISE OUR PROFITS AND IT WILL PROVE TO ENRICH EVERYONE’ OR ‘BUY THIS THING OR IDEA AND BECOME HAPPY/SAFE/RICH/POWERFUL.’ AND SINCE THESE IDEAS CURRENTLY PROVIDE THE BEST JOBS, IN GREAT CITIES’ OFFICE TOWERS WITH AMAZING VIEWS, WE’LL BE SECURELY LOCKED UP IN THOSE KINDS OF FALSE RATIONALES UNTIL SHIT HITS THE FANS AGAIN LIKE IT DID IN BANKS IN 2008.
        2. BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE ARE WILLING, COLLABORATIVE, POSITIVE, KIND PEOPLE, THEY ASSUME WHAT OTHERS PROMISE THEM IS TO BE TRUSTED. WE SLOWLY SEE THAT NOT ALL PROMISES ARE IN OUR INTEREST TO BELIEVE. FROM CORPORATE COMMERCIALS TO RELIGIOUS DOGMAS TO POLITICAL ADVERTISERS WE ARE BEING SOLD DREAMS OR FEARS, IN RETURN FOR MONEY, TRANSFER OF POWER AND LOSS OF SAFETY (BOTH OUR MARTIAL SECURITY AND IN QUALITY OF FOOD AND HEALTHCARE). BE SUSPICIOUS EVEN OF NGO’S. WHAT? YES, THEY GET FUNDED TO HEAL SYMPTOMATIC EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM, BUT NEVER REALLY CHANGE THE ROOT OF THE TROUBLE. GREENPEACE PROTESTS POLLUTION, UNICEF HELPS CHILDREN. NEITHER SOLVES THE UNCHECKED GREED THAT INSISTS ON POLLUTION OR CHILD LABOUR.
        3. OUR ‘LEADERS’ MADE IT NORMAL TO FRAME SUCCESS AS YOUR CAPABILITY TO JOIN THEIR RANKS AND PARADIGMS. FAILING TO DO SO OR DROPPING OUT MARKS YOU AS A LOSER. EVERYTHING IS ECONOMIZED, WHICH MEANS IF YOU DON’T INCREASE PROFIT TO THE SYSTEM, IF YOU’RE OLD, SICK OR UNEMPLOYED, YOU ARE BALLAST, DEAD-WEIGHT UPON SOCIETY. AS IF THE MILLIONS OF NON-PROFIT HUMANS, LIKE MOTHERS, VOLUNTEERS AND ACTIVISTS, TAKING CARE OF ELDERLY, SICK, REFUGEES AND NATURE ARE NOTHING BUT BALLAST!? AS IF THE SERVICES OF A TREE STANDING IN A FOREST HAVE NO VALUE TO THE WHOLE OF NATURE! WE SEEM NOT TO UNDERSTAND HOW THAT TREE ENRICHES ITS ECOSYSTEM. POWERFUL PEOPLE ACT AS IF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE WERE BARBARIANS, WHILE IT’S WE IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY RAVAGING THE PLANET WHO ARE BARBAROUS. IT’S WE WHO DEFEND ‘OUR WAY OF LIFE’ WHO ARE CRUELLY DENYING OTHERS THEIRS.
        4. WORSE, MANY PEOPLE LIMIT THEIR THINKING TO THE STAINED BOX OF THESE PARADIGMS. MOST AMERICANS ARE STUCK BETWEEN CHOOSING ONE BAD CANDIDATE TO PREVENT THE OTHER BAD CANDIDATE FROM WINNING, AS IF THERE CAN BE NO OTHER OPTIONS. WE VOTE DENYING THAT THE SYSTEM OF DEMOCRATIC REPRESENTATION IS BROKEN, WHILE WE PLACE ALL THE BLAME ONE OR BOTH CANDIDATES.
        5. CHANGING LEADERS WILL CHANGE LITTLE. WHEN WE DETHRONE CROOKS, LEADERS WHO SUPPORT WORLD-DAMAGING PARADIGMS, LIKE-MINDED SOCIOPATHS TEND TO PUSH FORWARD AND NOTHING REALLY CHANGES. SO DON’T EXPECT YOUR NEXT PRESIDENT TO PROVIDE YOU THE SOLUTION.
      12. A Transcendent Paradigm Needed

        1. THE ONE BIG SHIFT NEEDED IS TO TRANSCEND SUCH LIMITING ‘US VS THEM’ BELIEFS, INCLUDING, HAHAHA, THE ONE JUST MENTIONED ABOUT ‘THOSE LEADERS’. YES, BECAUSE MANY LEADERS AND THEIR CRONIES, EH, SORRY, DEPUTIES, REALLY WORRY TOO. THEY’RE HUMAN. SADLY, SINCE THEY SEEK SOLUTIONS WITHIN THE EXISTING SYSTEMS OR THAT ENHANCE EXISTING POWERS, THEIR ATTEMPTS ARE DOOMED TO FAIL. TRIBAL WE STILL REMAIN. WHISTLEBLOWERS, AND PEOPLE STEPPING OUT OF LINE ARE SEEN AS TRAITORS INSTEAD OF PEOPLE WHO SEE THE BIGGER PICTURE AND ADVOCATE HIGHER VALUES THAN BOTTOM LINE SHORT TERM ORGANIZATIONAL INTERESTS.
        2. THE CORPORATIZED MEDIA AREN’T HELPING EITHER. THEY ADVERTISE AND SELL CONSUMERISM AND APPARENT SUCCESS STORIES WITHIN THE CURRENT PARADIGM. THEY DON’T INFORM ON REAL NEEDS, REAL ISSUES THAT WOULD CHALLENGE THE INTERESTS OF THEIR ADVERTISERS, BIGGER THINKING HAPPENING ACROSS THE GLOBE. BIG MEDIA HARDLY RECOGNIZE THE RISE EVERY DAY OF CHANGE MAKERS LIKE THE READERS OF THIS POST. YES, A STUNNING NUMBER OF PEOPLE AROUND THE GLOBE WORK AS BEST THEY CAN TOWARD IMPROVEMENT OF THE WHOLE. PEOPLE INVENTING AND IMPLEMENTING SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTH CARE, AGRICULTURE, PERMACULTURE, TRANSITION TOWNS, PEACE, EQUAL RIGHTS, ENDING SLAVERY, ENDING TORTURE, ENDING POVERTY IS STAGGERING. SURELY WE CAN SEE EACH OTHER BETTER, ENCOURAGE EACH OTHER MORE, AND COORDINATE BETTER! FOR MANY YEARS WE’VE WATCHED THE DAYTONA-500. NOW WHERE ARE THE CHANGE-500? THE HOPEFUL-500? THE SOLUTION-500?
        3. TOO READILY WE EDUCATE OUR YOUTH TO BE PART OF THE PROBLEM!! SHELLY OSTROFF MADE AN ESSENTIAL STATEMENT: “WHEN CHILDREN ARE FORCED TO SIT STILL AT THEIR DESKS IN CROWDED CLASSROOMS THEY BECOME DISCONNECTED FROM THEIR BODIES, NATURE AND LIFE. THEY ARE NOT GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP THEIR INSTINCTS, INTUITION, OR CRITICAL THINKING. THEY ARE NOT EDUCATED TO BECOME CREATIVE AND CARING PROBLEM SOLVERS WILLING TO CONTRIBUTE TO THEIR LARGER ENVIRONMENT.”
      13. What May Be the Deeper Root

        1. (SKIP THIS SECTION IF YOU WANT THE SOLUTIONS NOW! THIS DEEPER ROOT SECTION FORMS AN UNTESTED HYPOTHESIS)
        2. FOR CENTURIES MANKIND WALKED THE EARTH IN SMALL GROUPS. THESE SMALL GROUPS SUFFERED AND ENJOYED NATURE TO ITS FULLEST POWERS, AND MANKIND DEVELOPED THEIR BRAINS TO FIND SOLUTIONS. DIVERSITY WITHIN TRIBES ALSO GREW. HEALERS, LEADERS, CARETAKERS, MENTORS, MAKERS AROSE. BIOLOGY ALSO ADDED PSYCHOPATHIC TENDENCIES IN ABOUT 6% (REFERENCE?) OF THE POPULATION. IN SMALL ENOUGH GROUPS THE MAJORITY CAN ACCOMMODATE SUCH A PERSON. AND SUCH ARE HANDY WHEN KILLING, OR HORRIBLE LOOKING WOUNDS REQUIRE ATTENTION. ALMOST EVERY GROUP OF ABOUT 25 PEOPLE WOULD HAVE HAD ONE OR TWO OF THESE, PROBABLY OF DIFFERENT GENERATIONS.
        3. FOR MANY INDIGENOUS PEOPLES WE SEE THAT SOLVING CHALLENGES WITHOUT CONTROLLING NATURE IS QUITE POSSIBLE. YET SOME TRIBES SOUGHT CONTROL AND DOMINATION OVER NATURE AND OTHERS. THIS ‘SOLUTION’ WAS ADOPTED BY MANY TRIBES TO MAINTAIN PARITY. POPULATIONS GREW. AND WHILE OUR BIOLOGY AND DEEPEST SOCIAL CONDITIONING REMAINED FOR LIFE IN SMALL GROUPS, TRIBES BECAME EMPIRES. WITH SOCIETAL ORGANIZATION, DIVERSITY AND DIFFERENTIAL SORTING GROUPS OF PSYCHOPATHIC INDIVIDUALS BEGAN TO WORK TOGETHER. THEY COULD AND WOULD PLAN TAKEOVERS. THEY COULD AND WOULD PLAN MANIPULATION TO GAIN CONTROL WITH COORDINATED SCHEMING. HENCE THE BIRTH OF ELITES AND MANIPULATIVE RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS.
        4. BE AWARE, MANY SOCIOPATHS ARE WELL ADJUSTED CITIZENS, LIKE SURGEONS AND SOLDIERS, ABLE TO CUT INTO YOUR BODY WITHOUT FREAKING OUT. OR PILOTS WHO CAN STAY CALM WHEN EVERYTHING SEEMS LOST. BE HAPPY THEY ARE WITH US TOO. YET IN BOARD ROOMS OR AS LEADERS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE ANXIOUS, SELF SERVING SOCIOPATHS ARE COMPLETELY THE WRONG LEADERS. AND OUR WHOLE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM KEEPS TEACHING US TO BE LIKE THEM TO SUCCEED. WE HAVE BEEN TAUGHT MISTAKENLY THAT DECISIVENESS IS BETTER THAN DELIBERATION. WHAT WE REALLY NEED IS CONSIDERATE, CARING, WORLD-SEEING AND WORLD-SERVING DOUBTERS, WHO THINK RIGOROUSLY ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR DECISIONS. PEOPLE THAT WILL CONSIDER THE WHOLE SYSTEM, RATHER THAN ANY SUBSET OF THE GREAT ‘US’ OF EARTH.
      14. So Where Do We Go From Here (Chaos or Community?)

        1. WE HAVE TO EXPLORE HOW TO INCLUDE ALL VOICES, ENRICH THE DIVERSITY (LET NATURE AND POOR POPULATIONS FLOURISH) AND HOW OUR ENDEAVORS CAN HELP THE WHOLE WEB OF LIFE GROW RICHER. WHAT SYSTEM WILL LET EVERYBODY AND EVERYTHING WIN? WHAT SYSTEM WILL PROVIDE ENOUGH FOR EVERYONE ON THE PLANET? CERTAINLY THERE IS PROOF ENOUGH THAT WE’VE ENOUGH FOR ALL.
        2. THE BEAUTIFUL THING IS THAT LIFE ITSELF SHOWS US THE WAY. OUR BODIES ARE A SUPER RICH COLLABORATION OF PARTS. NATURE IS THE MOST DELICATE NETWORK OF TEEMING DIVERSITY. NATURE DOESN’T USUALLY HAVE CANCER, WHERE SOME THINGS GROW UNCHECKED, WITHOUT RESTRAINT. HUMAN CIVILIZATION EXHIBITS THESE, FROM CANCERS IN OUR BODIES, TO HUGE CORPORATIONS THAT AFFECT THE PLANET AS A WHOLE BY GOBBLING UP NATURAL RESERVES AND FREELY DUMPING WASTES. WE NEED SYSTEMS THAT FORM NATURAL MEDICINE, AND NOT MORE OF THE SAME BROKEN AND BREAKING SYSTEMS.
        3. SO HOW DOES NATURE REALLY WORK? DARWIN’S SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST CONCEPT HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE REPRODUCTION OF THE BEST ADAPTED. THOSE UNILATERALLY TURNING THE WORLD TO THEIR WISHES MIGHT BE THE LEAST ADAPTABLE, AS THEY DON’T ACCEPT THEIR PLACE WITHIN THE DELICATE INTERDEPENDENCIES SCIENCE MAY REVEAL TO THEM. THE MAJESTY OF THE CONCRETE JUNGLE IS DANGEROUSLY INCAPABLE OF PROVIDING FOOD IN TIMES OF NEED AND IT CONTRIBUTES VAST AMOUNTS OF GREENHOUSE GASES AND OTHER ENHANCERS OF GLOBAL WARMING. ACCEPTANCE, ADAPTATION, AND REINTEGRATION OF THE NATURAL WORLD INTO OUR CITIES, AGRICULTURE THAT ENRICHES THE SOIL RATHER THAN DEPLETES IT AND, DARE WE SAY, LOVE, CARE AND COMPASSION FOR ALL THE LIVING AND NON-LIVING COULD BECOME PART OF OUR NEW PARADIGM. THOSE WHO HAVE POKED AROUND A BIT LONGER MIGHT REPHRASE IT A VERY OLD PARADIGM REDISCOVERED.
      15. All That is Old, May Become New

        1. THE ELIMINATION OF THE CONCEPT OF WASTE, TO BE REPLACED BY THE CONCEPT OF NUTRIENT, WAS INTRODUCED IN THE BRILLIANT 2002 McDONOUGH & BRAUNGART BOOK, CRADLE TO CRADLE.

    “Why not challenge the notion that human industry must inevitably damage the natural world?
    In fact, why not take nature itself as our model? A tree produces thousands of blossoms in order to create another tree, yet we do not consider its abundance wasteful but safe, beautiful, and highly effective; hence, “waste equals food” is the first principle the book sets forth. Products might be designed so that, after their useful life, they provide nourishment for something new-either as “biological nutrients” that safely re-enter the environment or as “technical nutrients” that circulate within closed-loop industrial cycles, without being “downcycled” into low-grade uses (as most “recyclables” now are). William McDonough and Michael Braungart make an exciting and viable case for change.”https://www.amazon.com/Cradle-Remaking-Way-Make-Things/dp/0865475873

  1. The New System
    1. Under Construction
      1. YES, IT’S STILL IN THE MAKING.
      2. MANY VOICES AROUND THE WORLD TALK ABOUT THIS.
    2. Many Parts to a Solution
      1. Applied systems science
        1. SCIENCE HAS TO EMBRACE THE NEW REALITIES IT IS DISCOVERING. IF EVERYTHING IS INTRICATELY CONNECTED IN A DELICATE SYSTEM, THEN SCIENCE CAN’T CONTINUE BEING OF SERVICE TO BIG CORPORATIONS, CREATING LUMP SOLUTIONS TO DRIVE PROFIT. TRUE SCIENCE SHOULD BE: HOW IS IT ALL HANGING TOGETHER? AND MORE IMPORTANTLY: WHAT IMPACT WOULD THIS ‘SOLUTION’ HAVE FOR THE WHOLE SYSTEM OF LIFE ON THIS PLANET?
      2. Holistic, webby and ecosystemic
        1. JUST BRINGING NEW PRODUCTS TO THE MARKET FOR FAST PROFITS HAS TO LOSE OUT TO MAKING CHOICES THAT HELP HEAL, IMPROVE THE WHOLE WEB TO FLOURISH. BETTER SAWS TO CUT TREES, AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS, GMO’S AND CHEAPER PLASTICS WOULD GET WAY MORE SCRUTINY BEFORE EVEN SLIGHTLY CONSIDERED. WE’D SEE THAT SUCH IDEAS ARE NOT SCIENCE AT ALL. THE QUESTION OF WHAT GAIN WILL WE GET FROM THIS, MIGHT SOONER MEAN CHARLATANIC RAPE, RAVAGING AND MURDER OF OUR NATURAL WORLD AND WOULD NOT BE SEEN AS SCIENCE (THE ACCEPTANCE AND DISCOVERY OF REALITY AS IT IS) AT ALL. BECAUSE IT EXCLUDES AND TRAMPLES REALITY AS WE NOW UNDERSTAND IT.
      3. Actively diversify
        1. BRING IN A BIGGER DIVERSITY OF VOICES BRINGING IN WISDOM AND MORE PERSPECTIVE BEFORE ESSENTIAL CHOICES ARE MADE. NO ONE WITH ELDERLY, CHILDREN, PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS, AND COLOURS PRESENT WILL AS EASILY MAKE UNJUST LAWS. HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN WILL CRY AND PROTEST IF FORESTS ARE CUT OR OTHER CHILDREN BOMBED. AND KICK SELF SERVING PSYCHOPATHS OUT, HOWEVER GREAT THEIR STORY SOUNDS OR HOW THEY MAY THREATEN YOU. THAT’S WHAT THEY’RE GOOD AT.
      4. Seek old wisdom
        1. LEARN VALUES FROM INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS WITH NATURE. LEARN FROM THE ZAPATISTAS AND TRIBAL AFRICANS HOW TO SPREAD LEADERSHIP AROUND, HOW TO GROW LOCAL RESILIENCE. LEARN FROM GRASSROOTS MOVEMENTS HOW TO GO REALLY GREEN IN A WAY THAT CAN SUSTAIN EVERYONE. ACCEPT THAT CARE FOR THE WHOLE OUTRANKS ANY CORPORATE ECONOMICAL INTEREST…BY FAR.
      5. Don’t be afraid to cut deep
        1. DARE TO FIRE THAT CEO THAT DAMAGES THE PLANET. DARE TO STOP HUGE CORPORATIONS THAT HARM PERSONS, PLACES OR PLANETS. DARE TO CRIMINALIZE DESTRUCTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES. INCLUDE ALL EXTERIOR COSTS OF COMPANIES BACK INTO THEM, SO WE PAY REAL PRICES. STOP FUNDING AND SUBSIDIZING POWERS THAT BE, FOR EVERYTHING HEALTHIER, GREENER, MORE PROMISING FOR THE WHOLE. AND STOP ANYONE FROM BEING ABLE TO DECIDING THEIR OWN SALARY OR BONUS. CUSTOMERS SHOULD DECIDE, TO START WITH, AND THEN THE WORKERS AT THE BOTTOM SHOULD DECIDE WHAT IS FAIR ABOVE.
      6. Teach the children
        1. TEACH EVERY CHILD MORE BODY AWARENESS, MORE CRITICAL THINKING, AND MORE ECO AWARENESS. SUPPORT EVERY CHILD THAT CHALLENGES SCHOOL AND OR CURRENT PARADIGMS TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES. STRENGTHEN IDEALS AND VALUES OF YOUNG PEOPLE SO THEY DON’T LOSE IDEALISM, RATHER EXPAND IT WITH KNOWLEDGE WHILE GROWING UP. ARM THEM AGAINST BRAINWASH AND MANIPULATIVE SALES.
      7. End slavery and poverty
        1. END THE DEBTORS LIFESTYLE. END HOMELESSNESS NEAR EMPTY STRUCTURES (WHO EVER ACCEPTED THIS IDEA, HOUSING ROTTING AWAY, WITH PEOPLE ON THE STREETS LIVING IN DEJECTION?). PEOPLE GIVEN A CHOICE WILL NOT REMAIN IN MEANINGLESS JOBS OR UNHEALTHY CONDITIONS. UNDER A BASIC OR GENERAL INCOME ALL WORK WOULD BECOME MEANINGFUL, PLEASURABLE AND VOLITIONAL. THIS WOULD CHANGE THE FACE OF HUMAN SOCIETY. ENLIST THE BEST PRACTICES OF GOVERNMENT TO ACCELERATE ASCENT FROM POVERTY TO CLEAN AND ABUNDANT LIVING FOR EVERYONE.
      8. Safe Cities, Green Cities, Developing Cities, Just Cities
        1. SAFETY FOR AND FROM PEOPLE, SECURITY FOR AND FROM THINGS ARE A KEY AIM OF SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PRACTICE.
        2. MAKE CITIES GREEN TO HELP THEM APPROACH GREATER SUSTENANCE. FRANCE RECENTLY MADE IT LAW TO USE EVERY FLAT SOUND ROOF FOR EITHER GROWING PLANTS OR SPORTING SOLAR PANELS. IT’S A GOOD IDEA. MORE GREEN IN CITIES WILL CLEAN THE AIR, PROVIDE MORE FOOD, REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING, AND BRING BACK BEES AND BUTTERFLIES. THERE IS NO REASON NOT TO DO THIS, EXCEPT FOR THE INCREASED CARE THAT ROOFSIDE GARDENS AND POWER PLANTS MAY REQUIRE. YET IF HALF OF OUR OLD JOBS ARE TAKEN UP BY ROBOTS THEN HEY WHY NOT WORK WITH NATURE AND NOT AGAINST IT? WE ARE NATURE. LET’S EMBRACE IT. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION HAS BECOME A TENANT OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT.
        3. DEVELOPMENT MUST OCCUR WITHOUT EXPANSION OF ENERGY USE UNTIL AN OVER-ABUNDANT CLEAN SUPPLY EXISTS. HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ARE PRIMARY ANYWAY. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEED NOT ALWAYS IMPLY SPRAWLING GROWTH. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT NEEDS TO TRANSFORM TO MEET CRADLE-TO-CRADLE MATERIAL AND DESIGN IDEALS AND FULLER NATURAL INTEGRATION. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT TO MAXIMIZE LIVING QUALITY BUT MINIMIZE SPATIAL EXPANSION IS A KEY AIM OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING.
        4. GROWING JUSTICE MOVEMENTS NEED TO INTERTWINE, EACH TO LIFT UP THE OTHER. ENCOURAGINGLY THE FIRST SIGNS OF THIS HAS JUST BEGUN IN THE UNITED STATES AROUND 2017. SOCIAL JUSTICE IS AN UNAMBIGUOUS AIM OF SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PRACTICE.
      9. Redefine and internalize the rewards of all forms of capital deployment, labor provision and land lease.
        1. INTERNALLY PRICE CARBON. DEVELOP ECONOMICAL SYSTEMS THAT DON’T STOP PEOPLE FROM WORKING ON ESSENTIAL THINGS WHENEVER PARTS OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE BREAK DOWN, SUCH AS FINANCIAL SYSTEM, TRANSPORTATION LINE OR ELECTRICAL GRID. IN THE NETHERLANDS THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WORK EVERY DAY TO KEEP DUTCH HEADS ABOVE WATER. THIS IS AN ESSENTIAL REALITY AND NO FINANCIAL SITUATION SHOULD BE ABLE TO ENDANGER IT. SAME SHOULD GO FOR WATER, FOOD, SANITATION, SAFETY, HEALTH, EDUCATION, CHILDCARE, ELDERCARE, INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND NATURAL FLOWS ALL AROUND THE PLANET.
      10. Develop yourself and others.
        1. BREATHE SLOWLY. PLAY WILDLY. VENTURE INTO NATURE. ENCOURAGE MEANINGFUL WORK OR SERVICE. EXPRESS YOUR DREAMS. IGNORE MARKETING AND ADVERTISING. CELEBRATE NATURAL BEAUTY IN THE MOMENT. RELATE TO AND WITH YOUR BODY. TUNE TO ITS NEEDS AND MESSAGES. DEVELOP INTUITION. BE DEEP, BECOME WISE. BECOME FULLY HUMAN AND REMARKABLY ALIVE.
      11. Guide governance.
        1. ENVISION GOVERNMENTS THAT WILL ENRICH THE PLANET AND RECONNECT ALL OF THE LIFE AND MATERIAL IN IT.
        2. DEVELOP PARADIGMS THAT INCLUDE NATURE AND ITS NEEDS AS FUNDAMENT.
        3. DEVELOP IDEAS THAT SOLVE ROOT CAUSES OF POVERTY, WAR, DESTRUCTION AND POLLUTION RATHER THAN ADDRESSING THE EFFECTS.
        4. DEVELOP SPACE FOR DIVERSITY OF IDEAS AND VOICES, SO NO FEW RADICALS CAN PUSH LARGE GROUPS TOWARDS VIOLENT IDEAS.
        5. AND PERHAPS MOST OF ALL, AS CHRISTOPHER CHASE PUT IT: ‘ACCEPT YOU ARE PART OF NATURE.’ WE MUST LIVE WITHIN OUR SOLAR BUDGET, JUST AS OUR CELLS SELF-REGULATE TO PERFORM VITAL ROLES WITHIN THE BODY WHOLE. CONCEIVE OF OUR PLACE WITHIN NATURE (AND NOT EXCLUSIVELY AROUND HUMANS ALL THE TIME). TO DO OTHERWISE MEANS BECOMING CANCER. WE NEED NATURE. WE ARE NATURE. LET US ACT, NATURALLY.
  2. Help others, help yourself

    1. HELP THE PEACEFUL MAJORITY, HELP THE PLANET TO SHIFT. WE WILL ONLY WIN, WHEN EVERYONE WINS.
    2. SUPPORT THE GENTLE REVOLUTION, BE DEVELOPING WHAT SHOULD COME AFTER. INNOVATE ONWARDS.
  3. End Notes on the development of this post

    1. MOST OF THIS POST WAS WRITTEN IN ONE SESSION AFTER AN INSPIRING ONLINE TALK WITH CHRISTOPHER CHASE (SEE HIS BLOG CREATIVESYSTEMSTHINKING) AND A FIRED UP CHAT WITH SHELLEY OSTROFF (SEE HER BLOG TOGETHERINCREATION). AND FINALLY THE NEW SCIENCE PARADIGM WAS BORN IN A SHORT TALK WITH JAN-HENK BOUMAN (FOUNTAINHEADS). THANK YOU ALL FOR YOUR TIME AND INSPIRATION.
    2. PART OF THIS PIECE WAS WRITTEN BY FLORIS KOOT AND WAS ORIGINALLY POSTED ON MEDIUM. IT HAS NOW BEEN FURTHER DEVELOPED BY OTHERS AND REPOSTED WITH PERMISSION UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE.
    3. THE GENTLE REVOLUTION IS ALSO ON FACEBOOK.
    4. MORE ON WHAT YOU CAN DO. HOW TO HELP.
    5. MORE ON HOW TO CHANGE EDUCATION.
    6. MORE ON HOW TO FIX CLIMATE CHANGE.
    7. HOW TO FIX CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE USA.
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